What are the 4 A's of Marketing Management?

Customers are no longer just a part of the business; they are the king. The business revolves around satisfying the consumers, and hence it is very important for firms to look at the 4As of marketing instead of the 4Ps of marketing. The 4 Ps of marketing help the firm and producer understand what goods they should produce to get the maximum profits. The 4 P’s of marketing are what firms are focused on−

  • Product - producing high-quality goods that are supposed to be better than the competitors'

  • Price - determining the price of the goods to maximize profits for the firm while keeping it lower than competitors' prices

  • Place - This is to ensure that the high-quality goods produced by the producers are more readily available to the consumers. Firms aim to make their distribution channels stronger than their competitors.

  • Promotion - The producer's goal here is to advertise the products to consumers so that they will choose their products over competitors' products.

The four A's of marketing revolve entirely around the business and the producer; in order to satisfy the consumer, businesses must ensure the four P's of marketing.

The Concept of the "4 A's" of Marketing

The 4 A's of marketing are a consumer-oriented approach that helps producers and firms understand the parameters of production from the customers' perspective. At the end of the day, customers are the ones who use the product, and they only make the purchase, selection, promotion, and distribution decisions.

The 4 A's of Marketing are

  • Acceptability

  • Affordability

  • Accessibility

  • Awareness

Acceptability of the Product

A product can always be categorized into three types −

  • The product is below the expectations of the consumer  This results in dissatisfied consumers. The consumer will never purchase the product, may write bad reviews, lodge complaints, and lead to negative publicity for the product.

  • The product is just meeting the expectations of the consumer − This results in satisfied consumers. The customer may purchase the product again and will definitely switch in the case of other options. will not speak positively and confidently about the product.

  • The product exceeds the expectations of the consumer − This results in a delightful customer experience. The consumer is hoping to purchase the product again and is even going to spread positive word of mouth.

Product or service acceptability can be divided into two parts −

  • Functional acceptability of the product − This factor deals with the features of the product, the benefits of the product, and the product facts. Here, changes are made to the core product to make it more acceptable and desirable for the consumer. For example, when a customer books a hotel room, he is looking for a clean room, a proper hotel bed, and hygienic bathroom facilities. Anything extra than these is considered the additional functional benefits offered by the hotels, and it could be wifi facilities, paid spa facilities, complimentary breakfast, and others. These functional benefits give the company an edge over its competitors. 

  • Psychological acceptability of the product − This deals with the hedonistic benefits of the product. A product may be excellent in terms of features but provide no hedonic or emotional satisfaction. This generally comes in handy in the case of luxurious brands. For example, in the case of vehicles, an ordinary Tata motor will provide the same benefit to the consumers, but they may choose it over a Rolls-Royce or BMW because of the social status of the brand. Brands here charge consumers for their emotions.

Affordability of the Product or Service

This factor of the marketing mix deals with both the consumer’s ability to pay for the product and their willingness to do so. It can be again divided into two types.

  • Economical affordability − A consumer may want to purchase everything under the sun, but are they financially sound enough to do so? When targeting or selecting a target market segment, businesses must consider their customers' economic situation.

  • Psychological affordability − A consumer will be willing to pay 3–5 times the price of the product if they feel that the product is going to add to their social status or if it is a matter of pride for them. This factor deals with the willingness of the consumer, irrespective of their ability to pay for the product. Again, it is applicable mostly for comfort and luxurious goods.

Accessibility for Consumers

This factor deals with the distribution channel of the company. All the firm’s efforts may go in vain if the products are not accessible to the consumer. Accessibility can be further divided into two parameters−

  • Customer Convenience − Is the product easily available to the consumer when they are making the purchase decision? This simply means that the product is available where the consumer might look for it, such as the nearest retail store, e-commerce websites, or large supermarkets. A consumer may go through the effort of finding the store for the product only if it is extremely valuable in terms of price or emotional need. Otherwise, they switch without even thinking twice.

  • Product or Service Availability − This refers to the inventory or stock of the product. Again, consumers would not go through the waiting period unless it was extremely expensive in terms of money or emotions. Otherwise, the customer would grab the most similar product from a different brand.

Awareness about the Product and the Brand

This factor deals with the advertisement and promotional techniques of the brand to make the product known to the consumer. This factor targets both the,

  • Current customer of the product.

  • Potential customer of the product.

Awareness Might be Created in Terms of

  • The features of the product

  • The benefits derived from the product or service both in terms of objective traits and subjective traits like emotions.

  • The comparison between the company's product and the competitor’s product

  • knowledge about the brand.

Benefits of the 4 A's of Marketing

  • Provides the company with a broader approach to marketing.

  • It helps the company with better resource allocation as they now perfectly understand the consumer and their various purchase factors.

  • Gives the company a higher return on investment (ROI), as the company is now producing what the market wants and is not just confused with its product love affair or production ego.

  • It makes the consumer more loyal to the brand as they are fully satisfied and feel valued by the company and its efforts.

  • It helps the company gain an edge over its competitors as now it is able to deliver more acceptable, affordable, aware, and accessible products to the consumer.

The 4 A’s of marketing are the new marketing approach being followed by the company to sustain itself in the cutthroat marketing environment. This method helps the consumer turn their "red ocean" into a "blue ocean." After all, the only growth that really matters is growth with others.

Updated on: 20-Jan-2023


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