Solid State Physics


The study of ''solid-state physics'' has been emerged in the year 1940, when scientists study the atomic properties of solid material. Here every ''solid material'' is composed of densely ''packed atoms'' and based on the relation between the atoms of the solid materials their properties are being decided (physics, 2022). During the atoms' interaction, the properties like electrical, magnetic, thermal, optical, and mechanical properties of the solid materials are decided. In the scientific field, the alignment of ''atoms of solid particles'' is basically in a geometric, irregular, or regular pattern. The alignment of solid particles' atoms mainly relies on the material incorporated and the consequences under which they have been formed.

''Solid-state of Physics'': Explanation

In this world of modernized and advanced technology, the principles of this ''solid-state physics'' are being used to detect the atomic properties of ''solid materials''. Scientists from the year 1940 have started researching the atomic properties of solid or rigid materials with the help of crystallography, metallurgy, quantum physics, and electromagnetism (Junker, 2019). All these are the main forms of the ''theoretical foundation'' of material science. ''Solid-state physics'' is also determined as one of the branches of ''condensed matter physics''.

The solid particles' thermal, optical, mechanical, magnetic, and electrical properties depend on the interaction of the atoms of the ''solid material''. According to the principle of ''solid-state physics,'' the alignment of ''solid materials'' atoms that are found in geometrical patterns, irregular or even in regular patterns basically depends on the materials present in the materials. The atomic alignments also depend on the condition under which the ''solid materials'' are formed.

Application of ''Solid-state Physics''

The concept that has been illustrated by scientists about ''solid-state physics'' is rigorously applied everywhere around us.

  • The major applications of ''solid-state physics'' are in electronic devices like computers and mobile phones.

  • This science of ''solid-state physics'' is also applied in optical devices like fibre topics and laser lights.

  • In the MRI that means ''Magnetic Resonance Imaging'' and other magnet-based and vibrating devices, this ''solid-state physics'' is applied.

  • Another major application of this ''solid-state physics'' has been done in memory bits and ''silicon-based logic'' equipment or tools.

The entire concept of this advanced and modernized technology depends on ''solid-state physics'' principles. These principles are also applicable in building wiring systems, the magnet system in doors of refrigerators, and in windowpanes (Wang et al. 2017). Apart from all these, this principle of ''solid-state physics'', is also applied in all types of irregular and regular patterns of ''crystalline solids'' such as amorphous solids like ''glasses of windows'', and metals.

The usefulness of ''Solid-state Physics''

The principles of ''solid-state physics'' can be applied to all kinds of advanced and modern technologies that are used in scientific research, large industries, and in space research institutes. These solid materials can be metals, amorphous materials, and optical devices, magnetic and electrical devices. Silicon-based devices also work based on the principles of this ''solid-state physics'' (Kittel, 2021). The atomic properties of the solid materials mainly denote the physical, mechanical and chemical strength. Besides this, how they are interacting with light, and conducting electric energy. This ''solid-state physics'' is one of the most important subjects for technology as it provides all with effective guidance in designing circuits that are necessary for advanced ''electronic instruments'' or devices.

Properties of ''Solid-state Physics''

The study of solid materials and their ''atomic properties'' that are generally found to affect their whole properties is included in the study of ''solid-state physics''. The properties like electrical, magnetic, thermal, optical, and mechanical properties of the solid materials are incorporated in this study of ''Solid-state physics''. The main properties of ''solid materials'' that can be evaluated in this scientific study are electronic properties and crystalline properties.

Condense-matter Physics

Figure 1: Condense-matter Physics

The materials that suffer from their crystalline structure can be instigated by ''crystallographic techniques'': ''neutron diffraction'', ''electron diffraction'', and ''X-ray crystallography''. The electronic properties of ''solid materials'' can be denoted by investigating the properties like ''warmth capacity'' and ''conduction'' (Kittel, 2021). The Drude model is determined to be the earliest model of ''conduction'' and helps to illustrate ''hall effect'', and ''thermal conductivity'' in metals.


The study of ''solid-state physics'' mainly focuses on the ''microscopic properties'' of the collection of several particles having variations in their atomic properties and structures. All ''solid materials'' are composed of atoms that are very densely packed and interaction among them is basically determined by their physical or chemical properties. This principle of ''solid-state physics'' can be applied to various electronic tools like computers or mobile phones. Optical devices like fiber optics and laser light also work according to this principle, and magnetic devices and other modernized technologies work on the basis of ''solid-state physics''.


Q1. What do you mean by the ''solid-state''?

The name ''solid-state'' has been derived from the consequences of the solid path through which the electrical signals pass. Those paths are determined to be the ''solid pieces'' of material of ''semi-conductor''. The ''solid-state'' device is a common transistor.

Q2. What motivations can be provided for studying ''solid-state physics''?

In order to make the study of ''solid-state physics'' interesting for the science students various effective motivations can be provided to them. They can be provided with technological motivations and fundamental or basic physics motivations. The student can also be motivated in this field by rewarding them with Nobel prizes for their best research.

Q3. Who is the inventor of ''solid-state physics''?

The inventor of ''solid-state physics'' is Albert Einstein. This study emerged in the year 1940 and the scientists use the principle this for determining the working criteria of several technologies.

Q4. What are the differences between ''condensed matter physics'' and ''solid-state physics''?

''Solid-state physics'' is considered to be the branch of ''condensed matter physics''. The main difference between both of them is in ''Solid-state physics'', the properties of crystals as the solid structure is studied and in ''condensed matter physics'', both liquid and solid system are studied.



Junker, G. (2019). Supersymmetric methods in quantum, statistical and solid-state physics. Bristol: IOP Publishing. Retrieved from:

Kittel, C. (2021). Introduction to Solid State Physics Solution Manual. Retrieved from:

Kittel, C. (2021). Introduction to solid-state physics Eighth edition. Retrieved from:

Wang, Y., Jin, X., Yu, H. S., Truhlar, D. G., & He, X. (2017). Revised M06-L functional for improved accuracy on chemical reaction barrier heights, noncovalent interactions, and solid-state physics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(32), 8487-8492. Retrieved from:


physics (2022). About Solid State Physics. Retrieved from: [Retrieved on: 17th June 2022]


Simply Easy Learning

Updated on: 21-Aug-2023


Kickstart Your Career

Get certified by completing the course

Get Started