Found 635 Questions for Computer Science

What is Delay distortion in computer networks?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 13-Sep-2021 12:24:55
Transmission impairment occurs when the received signal is different from the transmitted signal. As we know, a signal can be transmitted as Analog signal or it can be transmitted as a digital signal.In Analog signals due to transmission impairment the resulting received signal gets different amplitude or the shape. In the case of digitally transmitted signals at the receiver side we get changes in bits (0's or 1's).CausesThere are various causes of transmission impairments, which are as follows −NoiseDelay DistortionAttenuation DistortionLet us discuss Delay Distortion.Delay DistortionThis kind of distortion is mainly appearing in case of composite signals in which a ... Read More

What is Link State Routing protocol in computer network?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 11-Sep-2021 07:25:11
In the Link - State Routing Protocol, the router attempts to construct its own internal map of the network topology. It provides the information about whether the link to reach the router is active or not.Every router will create something called Link state packets.In the first round every node creates link state packets with the help of “Hello packets”.Step 1 − Prepare the link state packet at every router.DSeqTTLC11B7A1CSeqTTLD11B3ASeqTTLB2D1BSeqTTLA2D7C3Step 2 − Every router flood the link state packets to every offer routerAt A −Link state packet B, C, DFrom BA2C3D7From CB3D11From DA1B7C11Now A can construct the entire graph using the ... Read More

What is the difference between Computer Architecture and Computer Organization?

Ginni
Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:56:30
Computer ArchitectureThe architecture defines those attributes of the system apparent to the programmer or those attributes that directly force the program’s logical execution. It manage with the functional behavior of the computer system view by the user.Computer Architecture manages with the system’s programming part, including the multiple bits can define the several data types, input-output methods, approaches for addressing memory, and the computer’s instruction set. The implementation of any program is influenced by these qualities of architecture. The change in a bit or size can lead to a different result for the programmer.Computer OrganizationComputer organization can study the basic computer ... Read More

What is Myrinet Clos Network?

Ginni
Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:55:06
Myrinet is a high-performance, packet-communication, and switching technology. It was produced by Myricom as a high-performance alternative to conventional Ethernet networks. Myrinet switches are multiple-port components that route a packet entering on an input channel of a port to the output channel of the port selected by the packet.Myrinet switches have 4, 8, 12, 16 ports. For an n-port switch, the ports are addressed 0, 1, 2... n - 1. For any switching permutation, there may be as many packets traversing a switch concurrently as the switch has ports. These switches are implemented using two types of VLSI chips such ... Read More

What is Switches?

Ginni
Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:53:56
An n1 x n2 switch consists of n1 input ports, n2 output ports, links connecting each input to every output, control logic to select a specific connection, and internal buffers.A switch is used to establish connections from the input ports to the output ports. These connections may be one-to-one, which represents point-to-point connections, or one-to-many, which represents multicast or broadcast. The case of many-to-one should cause conflicts at the output ports and therefore needs arbitration to resolve conflicts if allowed. When only one-to-one connections are allowed, the switch is called a crossbar. An n x n crossbar switch can establish ... Read More

What is Ethernet?

Ginni
Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:52:09
Ethernet is a packet-switched LAN technology introduced by Xerox PARC in the early 1970s. Ethernet was designed to be a shared bus technology where multiple hosts are connected to a shared communication medium. All hosts connected to an Ethernet receive every transmission, making it possible to broadcast a packet to all hosts at the same time.Ethernet uses a distributed access control scheme called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect (CSMA/CD). Multiple machines can access an Ethernet at the same time. Each machine senses whether a carrier wave is present to determine whether the network is idle before it sends ... Read More

What are Clusters?

Ginni
Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:51:04
A cluster is a collection of stand-alone computers connected using some interconnection network. Each node in a cluster could be a workstation, personal computer, or even a multiprocessor system.A node is an autonomous computer that may be engaged in its private activities while at the same time cooperating with other units in the context of some computational task. Each node has its input/output systems and its operating system.When all nodes in a cluster have the same architecture and run the same operating system, the cluster is called homogeneous, otherwise, it is heterogeneous. The interconnection network could be a fast LAN ... Read More

What is the Client-Server Framework for Parallel Applications in Computer Architecture?

Ginni
Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:49:03
Parallel applications can be designed using the client/server model. A client may divide a big application into several smaller problems that can be processed by multiple servers simultaneously. All the servers compute the solution to their respective problems and send their results to the client.The client assembles the results from each server and outputs the final result to the user. The client acts as the master (supervisor) while the servers act as the slaves (workers) in the master-slave (supervisor-workers) model as shown in the figure. The steps are taken at the client and each server is summarized as follows.Client (Supervisor)Client ... Read More

What is Sockets?

Ginni
Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:46:29
Sockets are used to provide the capability of making connections from one application running on one machine to another running on a different machine. A socket abstraction consists of the data structure that holds the information needed for communication, and the system calls that manipulate the socket structure. Once a socket is created, it can be used to wait for an incoming connection (passive socket) or can be used to initiate a connection (active socket).A client can establish an active connection to a remote server by creating an instance of a socket. To establish a server connection and bind it ... Read More

What are the routing potential problems in Computer Architecture?

Ginni
Updated on 30-Jul-2021 14:45:02
Several possible problems can result from the use of certain routing mechanisms in message-passing systems. These include deadlock, livelock, and starvation, which are as follows −Deadlock − When two messages each hold the resources required by the other to move, both messages will be blocked. This is called a deadlock. It is a phenomenon that occurs whenever there exists a cyclic dependency on resources. Management of resources in a network is the responsibility of the flow control mechanism used. Resources must be allocated in a manner that avoids deadlock.Livelock − Livelock describes a situation in which a message keeps going ... Read More
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