Principles of Design

It is critical to comprehend the significance of the fundamentals associated with design. Structures that are below the surface of the design help to showcase the design and make it visually interesting as well as balanced. Designers can better understand how to break rules once they understand the significance and application of these principles. A solid understanding of these elements will aid in learning more about design principles.

The Principle of Balance

Any element placed on a page reflects a visual weight that varies in size, color, and texture. These elements must be in scale in order for the design to be stable and balanced. The elements on the right side of a symmetrical design have the same visual weight as those on the left. Symmetrical designs are easier to balance, but they are dull. Asymmetrical designs have different sides and a more evenly distributed visual weight. To achieve balance in asymmetry in a visually appealing design, movement is required. A lack of balance would result in a load on one side and an empty one on the other.

The Principle of Unity

The harmony produced by a design is defined by the design’s unity principles. The use of similar colors to match and integrate elements organically gives the impression that they belong together. They work together to strengthen the message by establishing clear relationships between visual elements. Too much unity can result in a sterile design devoid of personality. Then, to add movement, begin incorporating other elements. Your design will appear cluttered and confusing if it lacks unity.

The Principle of Contrast

Contrast refers to the degree of separation between design elements in visual hierarchies. It draws attention to specific elements. It is used to create a hierarchy between font sizes, with larger text being read before any smaller text. When it comes to font pairing, contrast is important because it creates a focal point for certain elements. It is also used to achieve harmony and balance. A lack of contrast dulls a design, and important messages can be missed. It is even more important when creating accessible documents.

The Principle of Emphasis

Emphasis is an important strategy for drawing attention to a specific design element. Mostly for buttons, websites, and so on. The goal is to create something that stands out from the crowd. Lines, colors, and other design elements are used to highlight specific aspects of the design. On a page, lines provide direction. The use of a group of similar shapes creates tension and draws the eye. Color can add emphasis to any design. Texture can be seen in materials to improve tactile properties.

The Principle of Repetition

Repetition refers to a single element that is repeated, whereas pattern refers to multiple elements that are repeated throughout a design. A repeated set of elements demonstrates that it flows without flaw to form a unit. When using tiles, it is most commonly used in interior design. It improves the viewer’s experience with the final design.

The Principle of Pattern

The pattern is the repetition of more than one design element. Repetition focuses on a single element being repeated, and the pattern is multiple elements repeated throughout a design. This seamless pattern is a repeated set of elements that flow without a flaw to create a unit. These are seamless patterns in interior design while using tiles.

The Principle of Rhythm

Rhythm is more complex than that and is applied to the same element throughout a design. It is the visual tempo of a combination of elements with variation and has organised movement. It is hidden in works of art and not like the principles of repetition and pattern.

The Principle of Movement

It refers to the path taken by the viewer’s eye through a composition. Important elements lead to secondary elements, which create interest and dynamism in composition. Using curved and diagonal lines generates more movement than straight lines. Color can also help to enhance movement. Some people use optical illusions, repetition, and contrast to organise information.

The Principle of Proportion

To achieve unity in design principles, these elements must be in proportion to each other. Proportion is about scale and size. Proportion is important for the elements to look realistic and doesn’t refer to the size of one element but to two or more elements.

The proportion compared to the caption is larger than the most important element. Smaller elements have less importance.

The Principle of Harmony

Harmony is the sense of cohesiveness between the elements in a composition. It is not exactly the same or completely different, but related in some way. Color palettes or similar textures create a sense of unity between different components. Using similar shapes creates harmony as they seem related. Harmony can make a design dull; you need some kind of variety.

The Principle of Variety

The use of a variety of design principles helps to create visual interest and keeps the user engaged with the design. Holding attention and guidance through composition to create a powerful experience. Variety adds interest to the composition to create contrast and tension.


In this work, we learnt about different aspects of design. There are various principles associated with it, which help in determining whether a composition will be successful or identify the missing piece of the puzzle.


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