The 8255A is a general purpose programmable I/O device designed to transfer the data from I/O to interrupt I/O under certain conditions as required. It can be used with almost any microprocessor.
It consists of three 8-bit bidirectional I/O ports (24I/O lines) which can be configured as per the requirement.
8255A has three ports, i.e., PORT A, PORT B, and PORT C.
Port A contains one 8-bit output latch/buffer and one 8-bit input buffer.
Port B is similar to PORT A.
Port C can be split into two parts, i.e. PORT C lower (PC0-PC3) and PORT C upper (PC7-PC4) by the control word.
These three ports are further divided into two groups, i.e. Group A includes PORT A and upper PORT C. Group B includes PORT B and lower PORT C. These two groups can be programmed in three different modes, i.e. the first mode is named as mode 0, the second mode is named as Mode 1 and the third mode is named as Mode 2.
8255A has three different operating modes −
Mode 0 − In this mode, Port A and B is used as two 8-bit ports and Port C as two 4-bit ports. Each port can be programmed in either input mode or output mode where outputs are latched and inputs are not latched. Ports do not have interrupt capability.
Mode 1 − In this mode, Port A and B is used as 8-bit I/O ports. They can be configured as either input or output ports. Each port uses three lines from port C as handshake signals. Inputs and outputs are latched.
Mode 2 − In this mode, Port A can be configured as the bidirectional port and Port B either in Mode 0 or Mode 1. Port A uses five signals from Port C as handshake signals for data transfer. The remaining three signals from Port C can be used either as simple I/O or as handshake for port B.
The prominent features of 8255A are as follows −
It consists of 3 8-bit IO ports i.e. PA, PB, and PC.
Address/data bus must be externally demux'd.
It is TTL compatible.
It has improved DC driving capability.
The following figure shows the architecture of 8255A −