Machine Learning - Based on Human Supervision

In the learning process, some of the methods that are based on human supervision are as follows −

Supervised Learning

Supervised learning algorithms or methods are the most commonly used ML algorithms. This method or learning algorithm take the data sample i.e. the training data and its associated output i.e. labels or responses with each data samples during the training process.

The main objective of supervised learning algorithms is to learn an association between input data samples and corresponding outputs after performing multiple training data instances.

For example, we have

X − Input variables and

Y − Output variable

Now, apply an algorithm to learn the mapping function from the input to output as follows −


Now, the main objective would be to approximate the mapping function so well that even when we have new input data (x), we can easily predict the output variable (Y) for that new input data.

It is called supervised because the whole process of learning can be thought as it is being supervised by a teacher or supervisor. Examples of supervised machine learning algorithms includes Decision tree, Random Forest, KNN, Logistic Regression etc.

Based on the ML tasks, supervised learning algorithms can be divided into following two broad classes −

  • Classification

  • Regression


The key objective of classification-based tasks is to predict categorial output labels or responses for the given input data. The output will be based on what the model has learned in training phase. As we know that the categorial output responses means unordered and discrete values, hence each output response will belong to a specific class or category. We will discuss Classification and associated algorithms in detail in the upcoming chapters also.


The key objective of regression-based tasks is to predict output labels or responses which are continues numeric values, for the given input data. The output will be based on what the model has learned in its training phase. Basically, regression models use the input data features (independent variables) and their corresponding continuous numeric output values (dependent or outcome variables) to learn specific association between inputs and corresponding outputs. We will discuss regression and associated algorithms in detail in further chapters also.

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