LISP - Input & Output


Advertisements


Common LISP provides numerous input-output functions. We have already used the format function, and print function for output. In this section, we will look into some of the most commonly used input-output functions provided in LISP.

Input Functions

The following table provides the most commonly used input functions of LISP −

Sr.No. Function & Description
1

read & optional input-stream eof-error-p eof-value recursive-p

It reads in the printed representation of a Lisp object from input-stream, builds a corresponding Lisp object, and returns the object.

2

read-preserving-whitespace & optional in-stream eof-error-p eof-value recursive-p

It is used in some specialized situations where it is desirable to determine precisely what character terminated the extended token.

3

read-line & optional input-stream eof-error-p eof-value recursive-p

It reads in a line of text terminated by a newline.

4

read-char & optional input-stream eof-error-p eof-value recursive-p

It takes one character from input-stream and returns it as a character object.

5

unread-char character & optional input-stream

It puts the character most recently read from the input-stream, onto the front of input-stream.

6

peek-char & optional peek-type input-stream eof-error-p eof-value recursive-p

It returns the next character to be read from input-stream, without actually removing it from the input stream.

7

listen & optional input-stream

The predicate listen is true if there is a character immediately available from input-stream, and is false if not.

8

read-char-no-hang & optional input-stream eof-error-p eof-value recursive-p

It is similar to read-char, but if it does not get a character, it does not wait for a character, but returns nil immediately.

9

clear-input & optional input-stream

It clears any buffered input associated with input-stream.

10

read-from-string string & optional eof-error-p eof-value & key :start :end :preserve-whitespace

It takes the characters of the string successively and builds a LISP object and returns the object. It also returns the index of the first character in the string not read, or the length of the string (or, length +1), as the case may be.

11

parse-integer string & key :start :end :radix :junk-allowed

It examines the substring of string delimited by :start and :end (default to the beginning and end of the string). It skips over whitespace characters and then attempts to parse an integer.

12

read-byte binary-input-stream & optional eof-error-p eof-value

It reads one byte from the binary-input-stream and returns it in the form of an integer.

Reading Input from Keyboard

The read function is used for taking input from the keyboard. It may not take any argument.

For example, consider the code snippet −

(write ( + 15.0 (read)))

Assume the user enters 10.2 from the STDIN Input, it returns,

25.2

The read function reads characters from an input stream and interprets them by parsing as representations of Lisp objects.

Example

Create a new source code file named main.lisp and type the following code in it −

; the function AreaOfCircle
; calculates area of a circle
; when the radius is input from keyboard

(defun AreaOfCircle()
(terpri)
(princ "Enter Radius: ")
(setq radius (read))
(setq area (* 3.1416 radius radius))
(princ "Area: ")
(write area))
(AreaOfCircle)

When you execute the code, it returns the following result −

Enter Radius: 5 (STDIN Input)
Area: 78.53999

Example

Create a new source code file named main.lisp and type the following code in it.

Live Demo
(with-input-from-string (stream "Welcome to Tutorials Point!")
   (print (read-char stream))
   (print (read-char stream))
   (print (read-char stream))
   (print (read-char stream))
   (print (read-char stream))
   (print (read-char stream))
   (print (read-char stream))
   (print (read-char stream))
   (print (read-char stream))
   (print (read-char stream))
   (print (peek-char nil stream nil 'the-end))
   (values)
)

When you execute the code, it returns the following result −

#\W 
#\e 
#\l 
#\c 
#\o 
#\m 
#\e 
#\Space 
#\t 
#\o 
#\Space 

The Output Functions

All output functions in LISP take an optional argument called output-stream, where the output is sent. If not mentioned or nil, output-stream defaults to the value of the variable *standard-output*.

The following table provides the most commonly used output functions of LISP −

Sr.No. Function and Description
1

write object & key :stream :escape :radix :base :circle :pretty :level :length :case :gensym :array

write object & key :stream :escape :radix :base :circle :pretty :level :length :case :gensym :array :readably :right-margin :miser-width :lines :pprint-dispatch

Both write the object to the output stream specified by :stream, which defaults to the value of *standard-output*. Other values default to the corresponding global variables set for printing.

2

prin1 object & optional output-stream

print object & optional output-stream

pprint object & optional output-stream

princ object & optional output-stream

All these functions outputs the printed representation of object to output-stream. However, the following differences are there −

  • prin1 returns the object as its value.

  • print prints the object with a preceding newline and followed by a space. It returns object.

  • pprint is just like print except that the trailing space is omitted.

  • princ is just like prin1 except that the output has no escape character

3

write-to-string object & key :escape :radix :base :circle :pretty :level :length :case :gensym :array

write-to-string object & key :escape :radix :base :circle :pretty :level :length :case :gensym :array :readably :right-margin :miser-width :lines :pprint-dispatch

prin1-to-string object

princ-to-string object

The object is effectively printed and the output characters are made into a string, which is returned.

4

write-char character & optional output-stream

It outputs the character to output-stream, and returns character.

5

write-string string & optional output-stream & key :start :end

It writes the characters of the specified substring of string to the output-stream.

6

write-line string & optional output-stream & key :start :end

It works the same way as write-string, but outputs a newline afterwards.

7

terpri & optional output-stream

It outputs a newline to output-stream.

8

fresh-line & optional output-stream

it outputs a newline only if the stream is not already at the start of a line.

9

finish-output & optional output-stream

force-output & optional output-stream

clear-output & optional output-stream

  • The function finish-output attempts to ensure that all output sent to output-stream has reached its destination, and only then returns nil.

  • The function force-output initiates the emptying of any internal buffers but returns nil without waiting for completion or acknowledgment.

  • The function clear-output attempts to abort any outstanding output operation in progress in order to allow as little output as possible to continue to the destination.

10

write-byte integer binary-output-stream

It writes one byte, the value of the integer.

Example

Create a new source code file named main.lisp and type the following code in it.

; this program inputs a numbers and doubles it
(defun DoubleNumber()
   (terpri)
   (princ "Enter Number : ")
   (setq n1 (read))
   (setq doubled (* 2.0 n1))
   (princ "The Number: ")
   (write n1)
   (terpri)
   (princ "The Number Doubled: ")
   (write doubled)
)
(DoubleNumber)

When you execute the code, it returns the following result −

Enter Number : 3456.78 (STDIN Input)
The Number: 3456.78
The Number Doubled: 6913.56

Formatted Output

The function format is used for producing nicely formatted text. It has the following syntax −

format destination control-string &rest arguments

where,

  • destination is standard output
  • control-string holds the characters to be output and the printing directive.

A format directive consists of a tilde (~), optional prefix parameters separated by commas, optional colon (:) and at-sign (@) modifiers, and a single character indicating what kind of directive this is.

The prefix parameters are generally integers, notated as optionally signed decimal numbers.

The following table provides brief description of the commonly used directives −

Sr.No. Directive & Description
1

~A

Is followed by ASCII arguments.

2

~S

Is followed by S-expressions.

3

~D

For decimal arguments.

4

~B

For binary arguments.

5

~O

For octal arguments.

6

~X

For hexadecimal arguments.

7

~C

For character arguments.

8

~F

For Fixed-format floating-point arguments.

9

~E

Exponential floating-point arguments.

10

~$

Dollar and floating point arguments.

11

~%

A new line is printed.

12

~*

Next argument is ignored.

13

~?

Indirection. The next argument must be a string, and the one after it a list.

Example

Let us rewrite the program calculating a circle's area −

Create a new source code file named main.lisp and type the following code in it.

(defun AreaOfCircle()
   (terpri)
   (princ "Enter Radius: ")
   (setq radius (read))
   (setq area (* 3.1416 radius radius))
   (format t "Radius: = ~F~% Area = ~F" radius area)
)
(AreaOfCircle)

When you execute the code, it returns the following result −

Enter Radius: 10.234 (STDIN Input)
Radius: = 10.234
Area = 329.03473


Advertisements
E-Books Store