JOGL - 3D Basics


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In previous chapters we have seen how to create 2d objects, apply effects to it, and transform the object. This chapter teaches you how to draw a line with 3rd dimension, and some shapes.

Let us draw a simple line with z-axis and see the difference between 2D and 3D lines. Draw a simple line first, then draw the second line 3 units into the window.

Let us go through the program to draw a 3D line −

import javax.media.opengl.GL2;
import javax.media.opengl.GLAutoDrawable;
import javax.media.opengl.GLCapabilities;
import javax.media.opengl.GLEventListener;
import javax.media.opengl.GLProfile;
import javax.media.opengl.awt.GLCanvas;
import javax.media.opengl.glu.GLU;

import javax.swing.JFrame;
   
public class Line3d implements GLEventListener {
   private GLU glu = new GLU();
	
   @Override
   
   public void display( GLAutoDrawable drawable ) {
      final GL2 gl = drawable.getGL().getGL2();
      gl.glTranslatef( 0f, 0f, -2.5f );
      gl.glBegin( GL2.GL_LINES );
      gl.glVertex3f( -0.75f,0f,0 );
      gl.glVertex3f( 0f,-0.75f, 0 );
      gl.glEnd();
      
      //3d line
      gl.glBegin( GL2.GL_LINES );
      gl.glVertex3f( -0.75f,0f,3f );// 3 units into the window
      gl.glVertex3f( 0f,-0.75f,3f );
      gl.glEnd();
   }
   
   @Override
   public void dispose( GLAutoDrawable arg0 ) {
      //method body
   }
   
   @Override
   public void init( GLAutoDrawable arg0 ) {
      // method body
   }
   
   @Override
   public void reshape( GLAutoDrawable drawable, int x, int y, int width, int height ) {
	
      GL2 gl = drawable.getGL().getGL2();
      
      if( height <= 0 )
         height = 1;
			
      final float h = ( float ) width / ( float ) height;
      gl.glViewport( 0, 0, width, height );
      gl.glMatrixMode( GL2.GL_PROJECTION );
      gl.glLoadIdentity();
		
      glu.gluPerspective( 45.0f, h, 1.0, 20.0 );
      gl.glMatrixMode( GL2.GL_MODELVIEW );
      gl.glLoadIdentity();
   }
   
   public static void main( String[] args ) {
	
      //getting the capabilities object of GL2 profile
      final GLProfile profile = GLProfile.get( GLProfile.GL2 );
      GLCapabilities capabilities = new GLCapabilities(profile);
          
      // The canvas
      final GLCanvas glcanvas = new GLCanvas( capabilities );
      Line3d line3d = new Line3d();
      glcanvas.addGLEventListener( line3d );
      glcanvas.setSize( 400, 400 );
       
      //creating frame
      final JFrame frame = new JFrame (" 3d line");
          
      //adding canvas to it
      frame.getContentPane().add( glcanvas );
      frame.setSize(frame.getContentPane().getPreferredSize() );
      frame.setVisible( true );
   }//end of main
	
}//end of class

When you compile and execute the above program, the following output is generated −

3D Line

3D shapes can be drawn by giving non-zero values to z quadrant of the glVertex3f() method, which generates the above view. Now joining the remaining lines will lead to a 3D edge.

Now in the same way let us develop an edge with 3rd dimension.

import javax.media.opengl.GL2;
import javax.media.opengl.GLAutoDrawable;
import javax.media.opengl.GLCapabilities;
import javax.media.opengl.GLEventListener;
import javax.media.opengl.GLProfile;
import javax.media.opengl.awt.GLCanvas;
import javax.media.opengl.glu.GLU;

import javax.swing.JFrame;

public class Edge1 implements GLEventListener {
   private GLU glu = new GLU();
	
   @Override
   public void display(GLAutoDrawable drawable) {
   
      // TODO Auto-generated method stub
      final GL2 gl = drawable.getGL().getGL2();
      gl.glTranslatef(0f, 0f, -2.5f);
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(-0.75f,0f,0);
      gl.glVertex3f(0f,-0.75f, 0);
      gl.glEnd();

      //3d line
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);

      //3 units in to the window
      gl.glVertex3f(-0.75f,0f,3f);
      gl.glVertex3f(0f,-0.75f,3f);
      gl.glEnd();

      //top
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(-0.75f,0f,0);
      gl.glVertex3f(-0.75f,0f,3f);
      gl.glEnd();

      //bottom
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(0f,-0.75f, 0);
      gl.glVertex3f(0f,-0.75f,3f);
      gl.glEnd();
   }

   @Override
   public void dispose(GLAutoDrawable arg0) {
      //method body
   }
	
   @Override
   public void init(GLAutoDrawable arg0) {
      // method body
   }
   
   @Override
   public void reshape(GLAutoDrawable drawable, int x, int y, int width, int height) {
	
      // TODO Auto-generated method stubfinal
      GL2 gl = drawable.getGL().getGL2();
      if(height <= 0)
         height = 1;
			
      final float h = (float) width / (float) height;
      gl.glViewport(0, 0, width, height);
      gl.glMatrixMode(GL2.GL_PROJECTION);
      gl.glLoadIdentity();
		
      glu.gluPerspective(45.0f, h, 1.0, 20.0);
      gl.glMatrixMode(GL2.GL_MODELVIEW);
      gl.glLoadIdentity();

   }
   
   public static void main(String[] args) {
   
      //getting the capabilities object of GL2 profile
      final GLProfile profile = GLProfile.get(GLProfile.GL2);
      GLCapabilities capabilities = new GLCapabilities(profile);

      // The canvas
      final GLCanvas glcanvas = new GLCanvas(capabilities);
      Edge1 b = new Edge1();
      glcanvas.addGLEventListener(b);
      glcanvas.setSize(400, 400);

      //creating frame
      final JFrame frame = new JFrame (" 3d edge");

      //adding canvas to it
      frame.getContentPane().add(glcanvas);
      frame.setSize(frame.getContentPane().getPreferredSize());
      frame.setVisible(true);
   }//end of main
	
}//end of class

When you compile and execute the above program, the following output is generated −

3D Edge

In the same way, by developing 3D edges to corresponding sides of any 2D quadrilateral and joining the adjacent vertices, you can get a 3D quadrilateral.

Below given is a program to draw a rhombus using JOGL.

import javax.media.opengl.GL2;
import javax.media.opengl.GLAutoDrawable;
import javax.media.opengl.GLCapabilities;
import javax.media.opengl.GLEventListener;
import javax.media.opengl.GLProfile;
import javax.media.opengl.awt.GLCanvas;
import javax.media.opengl.glu.GLU;

import javax.swing.JFrame;

public class Rhombus implements GLEventListener {
   private GLU glu = new GLU();
    
   @Override
   public void display(GLAutoDrawable drawable) {
	
      final GL2 gl = drawable.getGL().getGL2();
      gl.glTranslatef(0f, 0f, -2.5f);

      //drawing edge1.....
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(-0.75f,0f,0);
      gl.glVertex3f(0f,-0.75f, 0);
      gl.glEnd();
		
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(-0.75f,0f,3f); // 3 units into the window
      gl.glVertex3f(0f,-0.75f,3f);
      gl.glEnd();

      //top
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(-0.75f,0f,0);
      gl.glVertex3f(-0.75f,0f,3f);
      gl.glEnd();

      // bottom
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(0f,-0.75f, 0);
      gl.glVertex3f(0f,-0.75f,3f);
      gl.glEnd();
   
      // edge 2....
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(0f,-0.75f, 0);
      gl.glVertex3f(0.75f,0f, 0);
      gl.glEnd();
		
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(0f,-0.75f, 3f);
      gl.glVertex3f(0.75f,0f, 3f);
      gl.glEnd();
		
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(0f,-0.75f, 0);
      gl.glVertex3f(0f,-0.75f, 3f);
      gl.glEnd();
		
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(0.75f,0f, 0);
      gl.glVertex3f(0.75f,0f, 3f);
      gl.glEnd();

      //Edge 3.............
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f( 0.0f,0.75f,0);
      gl.glVertex3f(-0.75f,0f,0);
      gl.glEnd();
		
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f( 0.0f,0.75f,3f);
      gl.glVertex3f(-0.75f,0f,3f);
      gl.glEnd();
		
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f( 0.0f,0.75f,0);
      gl.glVertex3f( 0.0f,0.75f,3f);
      gl.glEnd();
		
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(-0.75f,0f,0);
      gl.glVertex3f(-0.75f,0f,3f);
      gl.glEnd();

      //final edge
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(0.75f,0f, 0);
      gl.glVertex3f( 0.0f,0.75f,0);
      gl.glEnd();
		
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(0.75f,0f,3f);
      gl.glVertex3f( 0.0f,0.75f,3f);
      gl.glEnd();
		
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f(0.75f,0f, 0);
      gl.glVertex3f(0.75f,0f,3f);
      gl.glEnd();
		
      gl.glBegin(GL2.GL_LINES);
      gl.glVertex3f( 0.0f,0.75f,0);
      gl.glVertex3f( 0.0f,0.75f,3f);
      gl.glEnd();
   }
   
   @Override
   public void dispose(GLAutoDrawable arg0) {
      //method body
   }
	
   @Override
   public void init(GLAutoDrawable arg0) {
      // method body
   }
	
   @Override
   public void reshape(GLAutoDrawable drawable, int x, int y, int width, int height) {
   
      // TODO Auto-generated method stub final
      GL2 gl = drawable.getGL().getGL2();
      if(height lt;= 0)
         height = 1;
			
      final float h = (float) width / (float) height;
      gl.glViewport(3, 6, width, height);
      gl.glMatrixMode(GL2.GL_PROJECTION);
      gl.glLoadIdentity();
		
      glu.gluPerspective(45.0f, h, 1.0, 20.0);
      gl.glMatrixMode(GL2.GL_MODELVIEW);
      gl.glLoadIdentity();
   }
   
   public static void main(String[] args) {
	
      //getting the capabilities object of GL2 profile
      final GLProfile profile = GLProfile.get(GLProfile.GL2);
      GLCapabilities capabilities = new GLCapabilities(profile);

      // The canvas
      final GLCanvas glcanvas = new GLCanvas(capabilities);
      Rhombus b = new Rhombus();
      glcanvas.addGLEventListener(b);
      glcanvas.setSize(400, 400);

      //creating frame
      final JFrame frame = new JFrame (" Rhombus 3d");

      //adding canvas to it
      frame.getContentPane().add(glcanvas);
      frame.setSize(frame.getContentPane().getPreferredSize());
      frame.setVisible(true);
   }//end of main
	
}//end of classimport javax.media.opengl.GL2;

When you compile and execute the above program, the following output is generated. It shows a rhombus drawn using 3D lines.

Rhombus 3D

The predefined parameters of glBegin() method can be used for drawing 3D shapes.



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