Indian Polity - Political Parties
Indian governance system has multi-party system and the political parties are categorized as −
- National Political Party;
- State or Regional (level) Political Party.
The recognition and status of political parties are reviewed and authorized by the Election Commission of India.
Eligibility of National Political Party
However, to be eligible for a ‘National Political Party of India,’ the Election Commission has set the following criteria −
It secures at least six percent of the valid votes polled in any four or more states, at a general election to the House of the People or, to the State Legislative Assembly; and
In addition, it wins at least four seats in the House of the People from any State or States.
It wins at least two percent seats in the House of the People (i.e., 11 seats in the existing House having 543 members), and these members are elected from at least three different States.
Eligibility of State Political Party
To be eligible for a ‘State Political Party,’ the Election Commission has set the following criteria −
It secures at least six percent of the valid votes polled in the State at a general election, either to the House of the People or to the Legislative Assembly of the State concerned; and
In addition, it wins at least two seats in the Legislative Assembly of the State concerned.
It wins at least three percent (3%) of the total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly of the State, or at least three seats in the Assembly, whichever is more.
The following table illustrates the major National Political Parties of India −
|Political Party Name||Abbreviation||Founded in||Current Leader|
|Indian National Congress||INC||1885||Sonia Gandhi|
|Communist Party of India||CPI||1925||Suravaram Sudhakar Reddy|
|Communist Party of India (Marxist)||CPI -M||1964||Sitaram Yechury|
|Bharatiya Janata Party||BJP||1980||Amit Shah|
|Bahujan Samaj Party||BSP||1985||Mayavati|