How to set comma as decimal separator in R?

R ProgrammingServer Side ProgrammingProgramming

In European countries, a comma is used to separate the integral part of a number from the decimal part. Thus, we might want to create data or perform calculations with comma as decimal separator. In R, we can do this by just using the code options(OutDec=","). Once we will type this in R console, all the numerical values with decimals will be printed with commas in place of dots.

Example

 Live Demo

options(OutDec=",")
rnorm(10)

Output

[1] 0,14421957 -0,24152088 -0,05215867 -0,40577010 0,19806357 -1,49349808
[7] 0,91085263 0,43550033 2,64009603 1,17177332

Example

 Live Demo

rnorm(50)

Output

[1] -0,56186368 -2,11404777 0,99584461 -2,22892798 -0,21588798 1,17378223
[7] 0,80136793 -0,49890663 0,18921894 0,84527020 0,70202718 0,19353172
[13] -2,98976881 -1,55517319 -1,68843588 1,86947547 -0,85967931 2,22141501
[19] -0,42453554 -0,40316155 0,59594728 -0,65595306 -0,56355375 0,16093191
[25] 0,41548714 -0,93818875 1,52681800 0,48608906 0,15661614 -0,62745645
[31] 0,65458574 0,67902693 0,93203727 -2,08749758 1,42334302 0,63484421
[37] 0,17237517 0,80096817 2,23775268 -1,11276711 1,35285967 -1,46419180
[43] 0,04372825 0,13612209 -0,05656928 -3,19635679 -0,72720528 0,60253277
[49] -0,01956573 0,20112019

Example

 Live Demo

rnorm(50,100,2.24)

Output

[1] 101,48879 100,75694 100,11546 99,08057 103,07195 99,53475 100,07432
[8] 98,15613 99,55028 98,63225 103,61765 101,77876 103,99651 97,80804
[15] 100,18855 101,57944 98,55887 102,64728 96,80716 99,69487 98,67344
[22] 98,23136 96,59398 101,13809 104,94554 99,65301 98,26410 99,66751
[29] 99,36292 99,50532 100,45769 98,02576 97,53276 101,41777 94,87069
[36] 102,58284 99,81109 101,60850 97,81656 100,99039 100,68643 97,32286
[43] 100,02354 97,62044 99,64247 99,58946 98,28843 99,64843 103,45448
[50] 102,01404

Example

 Live Demo

runif(50,2,5)

Output

[1] 4,259546 4,969702 2,475870 3,622774 3,080443 4,256582 3,330830 3,024105
[9] 3,554120 3,185494 3,555678 3,449932 2,520527 4,460643 2,714603 2,641070
[17] 3,736799 3,716577 4,790006 2,673009 2,607128 2,818719 4,945594 3,874789
[25] 2,075472 3,821771 4,585981 2,223283 3,440357 4,812539 4,681781 4,349544
[33] 3,763122 3,711276 2,762271 4,037973 2,585901 3,649577 2,272758 2,960357
[41] 3,492060 3,063031 4,528179 3,367038 3,447430 4,705368 3,841602 2,319730
[49] 3,991398 2,109541

Example

 Live Demo

runif(50,2,10)

Output

[1] 2,601662 7,086130 4,194458 4,030670 7,344066 6,476318 3,986455 8,276996
[9] 3,434791 9,760952 7,930710 7,154138 2,123655 2,169285 3,057115 2,826888
[17] 7,043019 5,317010 2,034057 8,667900 5,239970 9,278061 6,970918 9,131989
[25] 8,422478 9,642288 6,161859 7,361440 8,727534 4,972344 4,567614 9,981694
[33] 5,540412 5,144425 7,511388 5,628992 8,084486 2,462876 6,890469 5,386261
[41] 5,501142 3,140518 2,720681 5,481277 4,601765 3,194673 5,109435 5,786930
[49] 2,306639 6,518805

Example

 Live Demo

runif(50,100,500)

Output

[1] 324,6319 108,5833 307,9311 294,8830 375,5872 385,8248 198,6368 204,8510
[9] 476,9923 272,6734 162,3869 468,9543 299,4737 397,6416 252,0612 387,7843
[17] 355,5026 369,7032 481,1163 219,3107 294,8288 230,6538 431,2116 478,4371
[25] 290,9903 351,6383 303,7567 141,1547 170,9008 285,7873 303,0370 203,2985
[33] 280,5315 223,7103 379,3487 200,4625 308,8092 303,7486 326,9930 151,6563
[41] 420,9092 296,0903 406,7682 445,1934 249,7644 477,2750 219,6605 365,9331
[49] 302,1841 193,9043

Example

 Live Demo

> rexp(80,1.37)

Output

[1] 0,077263307 0,234174073 2,454894184 1,216015443 0,610670577 0,450220421
[7] 0,781902644 0,723594229 0,371607325 0,309788914 0,633456800 0,207343224
[13] 0,921222861 0,410496700 0,285874644 0,825631686 0,494836147 0,746554059
[19] 1,504242058 0,723692745 0,024898318 0,226251193 1,626604424 0,011893407
[25] 0,090971133 0,277625917 1,221526514 1,490549443 0,549020237 1,028102484
[31] 0,847492135 0,703920750 0,431831026 0,757378246 0,198574527 0,185446256
[37] 0,630798171 0,156981764 0,474978723 0,723217920 0,007928459 0,663266058
[43] 0,546132607 0,599982265 1,116886327 0,521197610 0,734407484 0,537714507
[49] 0,302900192 0,120592181 0,461599988 1,492210717 0,179615216 0,109953492
[55] 0,144390039 0,200401695 0,363837669 0,622152051 0,106983411 0,795086033
[61] 1,677166648 0,656683241 0,664218854 0,155483176 0,207980542 0,053253430
[67] 1,182462243 0,566262626 2,111718532 0,616123683 0,169117398 0,146551466
[73] 0,137258728 0,007949792 0,301259944 0,937648224 0,204266282 0,815650912
[79] 3,744783548 0,897738114

Example

 Live Demo

sample(c(3.17*10^14,2.25*10^25),50,replace=TRUE)

Output

[1] 3,17e+14 2,25e+25 2,25e+25 3,17e+14 3,17e+14 2,25e+25 2,25e+25 3,17e+14
[9] 3,17e+14 3,17e+14 3,17e+14 3,17e+14 2,25e+25 2,25e+25 3,17e+14 3,17e+14
[17] 2,25e+25 3,17e+14 3,17e+14 3,17e+14 3,17e+14 2,25e+25 2,25e+25 3,17e+14
[25] 2,25e+25 3,17e+14 2,25e+25 3,17e+14 2,25e+25 3,17e+14 2,25e+25 2,25e+25
[33] 3,17e+14 2,25e+25 3,17e+14 3,17e+14 2,25e+25 3,17e+14 2,25e+25 2,25e+25
[41] 3,17e+14 2,25e+25 3,17e+14 2,25e+25 3,17e+14 3,17e+14 2,25e+25 3,17e+14
[49] 2,25e+25 3,17e+14

Example

 Live Demo

binom.test(x=20,n=100,p=0.30)

Output

   Exact binomial test
data: 20 and 100
number of successes = 20, number of trials = 100, p-value = 0,02896
alternative hypothesis: true probability of success is not equal to 0,3
95 percent confidence interval:
0,1266556 0,2918427
sample estimates:
probability of success
            0,2
raja
Updated on 07-Dec-2020 05:45:57

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