Explain the components of DBMS?

The database management system (DBMS) software is divided into several components. Each component will perform a specific operation. Some of the functions of the DBMS are supported by operating systems.

The DBMS accepts the SQL commands that are generated from a variety of user interfaces, which produces a query evaluation plan, executes these plans against the database, and returns the answers.

Let’s have a look on the major software components of DBMS with pictorial representation −


The components of the DBMS are as follows −

  • DBA − The Data Base Administrator (DBA) responsibility is to create the DBMS structure and have the ability to control the structure.

  • Application Programs − It is used to create the records, change and update the records. It is mainly useful in designing the interface.

  • DML processor − Data Manipulation language, it is helpful to update data, manipulate data based on user request, checks according to syntax of SQL.

  • DDL Processor − Data Definition language checks the structure of the database. It checks the improper statements and the syntax of statements according to the SQL.

  • Data Dictionary − Store all the queries. Queries are checked according to the SQL configuration, if the queries are valid ok. Otherwise, it generates errors.

  • Integrity Checker − Here data is stored which is designed by Database administrator. Check the primary or unique key.

  • Authenticate control − Authenticate control checks whether a user is valid or not.

  • Command Processor − It processes the query ->SQL. For example, SQL ->Oracle -> optimize -> generate file.

  • Query optimizer − It updates the query, Reduces response time at end.

  • Transaction manager − Transaction manager, manage changes in query.

  • Scheduler − Send number of requests at a time, A queue is formed according to time.

  • Buffer manager − Buffer manager performs storage management operation.

  • Recovery manager − Recovery manager recovers the data from main memory and manages the log files or recovery files.

  • Query processor − Query processor processes the query coming from the user side. Its responsibility is to manage DML and DDL commands.


Select emp name, address from emp;
Select is a DML command.

Both processors work at the same time.

  • Syntax table is created or not.

  • Run select query which is retrieved from hard disk.

Run-time database manager

Run-time database performs the operations mentioned below −

  • Authenticate control

  • Integrity checker

  • Command processor

Data Manager

Data manager performs the physical level working and monitors how much space to be allocated to the database (DB).

Updated on: 03-Jul-2021

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