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Explain Giving an Example How the Following Provide Evidences in Favour of Evolution in Organisms. (i) Homologous Organs (ii) Fossils
Evolution is a scientific concept that explains how living organisms change and adapt over time. It is the process of natural selection that drives evolution, which allows species to survive and thrive in different environments. Evidence of evolution can be found in various areas, including homologous organs and fossils. In this discussion, we will focus on how these two provide evidence in favour of evolution in organisms.
Homologous organs are organs in different organisms that have a similar structure and function, but have evolved differently. These organs are evidence of common ancestry, which means that they have evolved from a common ancestor.
For example, the forelimbs of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians all have the same basic bone structure, but they are adapted differently to suit each organism's specific needs.
The presence of homologous organs suggests that these organisms have descended from a common ancestor, but have evolved over time to suit their specific environments. This is because the same structure of the organs is present in different organisms, but their functions may have changed due to adaptation to different environments.
For example, the wings of bats and birds are homologous organs because they both have the same basic structure, but have evolved differently. The wings of bats are modified forelimbs that have adapted to enable flight, while the wings of birds have evolved from feathers and have adapted to enable flight and gliding.
Another example of homologous organs is the forelimbs of different mammals. The forelimbs of humans, whales, bats, and cats have the same basic structure, but they have adapted differently to suit their specific needs. The forelimbs of humans are adapted for manual dexterity, while the forelimbs of whales have evolved into flippers, the forelimbs of bats into wings, and the forelimbs of cats into paws for walking and hunting.
Therefore, homologous organs provide strong evidence in favour of evolution because they suggest that different organisms have a common ancestor, but have adapted over time to suit their specific environments and needs.
Fossils are the remains of organisms that lived in the past. They are evidence of the history of life on Earth and provide insights into the evolution of organisms. Fossils are formed when an organism dies and is buried in sediment. Over time, the sediment hardens and preserves the remains of the organism, creating a fossil.
Fossils provide strong evidence in favour of evolution because they show how organisms have changed over time. By studying fossils, scientists can identify the different species that have existed in the past, and they can trace the evolution of those species over time.
For example, the fossil record shows that whales evolved from land-dwelling mammals that lived over 50 million years ago. Fossil evidence of these early mammals shows that they had limbs that were adapted for walking on land, but over time, their limbs evolved into flippers that are adapted for swimming. The fossil record provides evidence of this gradual change in the limb structure of these mammals, which suggests that they evolved over time to suit their aquatic environment.
Another example of fossil evidence for evolution is the evolution of horses. Fossils show that horses evolved from small, four-toed animals that lived over 50 million years ago. Over time, horses evolved into larger animals with a single hoof, which was better suited for running on open grasslands. The fossil record provides evidence of this gradual change in the structure of horses, which suggests that they evolved over time to suit their specific environment and needs.
Therefore, fossils provide strong evidence in favour of evolution because they show how organisms have changed over time, and how they have adapted to their specific environments and needs.
Homologous organs and fossils provide strong evidence in favour of evolution in organisms and together they paint a vivid picture of the history of life on Earth. Homologous organs demonstrate how different organisms have a common ancestry, but have evolved over time to suit their specific environments and needs. Fossils provide evidence of the gradual change of species over time, and how they have adapted to their environments.
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