Difference between Computer Vision and Machine Learning

During the past two decades, cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and computer vision have made the transition from the realm of research and development into the commercial and mainstream spheres. The commercial use has resulted in automated robot industrial assembly lines, automated vehicle navigation systems, and the analysis of remotely collected imagery to support automated visual inspection procedures.

Applications of computer vision and machine learning are some of the most enticing and exciting areas of study in the field of technology in the modern day. In addition, the majority of current tech sector corporations as well as ambitious technological start-ups are hurrying to embrace the benefits that come from these advanced technologies.

What is Computer Vision?

The complexity of the human visual system is only partially comprehended at this point. There are different types of life forms on the earth, all of which have visual systems that are very similar to one another. They have eyes for catching the light, brain receptors for accessing the light, and a visual cortex for processing the light.

The human brain analyses visual information by understanding the environment around it, which is a considerably superior method of image processing compared to any other approach. These kinds of photos are processed and interpreted by a computer in a very different way.

Computer Vision is an interdisciplinary field within the field of computer science that focuses on the development of techniques to make computers process, analyzes, and understand digital images, video, or other digital inputs. The goal of these techniques is to improve computer performance in these areas. It gives computers the ability to glean useful information from pictures and movies in the same way that people do. The purpose of this exercise is to simulate the way the human eye perceives light and color in the natural world and derive information from photographs.

Computer vision is an application of machine learning and artificial intelligence that extracts data from digital photos and videos and then uses that data to make judgments that are meaningful to the user.

Computer vision, just like the majority of other machine learning systems, requires a substantial amount of data in order to properly train algorithms to understand that data.

In most cases, computer vision makes use of two distinct types of technology −

Deep Learning

Deep Learning can be used to assist in the resolution of complicated problems. More crucially, deep learning, which makes use of neural networks, can effectively teach machine "brains" to take in visual data and remember the knowledge of patterns, strategies, and changes to environmental variables over the course of time.

Convolutional Neural Networks

CNNs take visual information such as photographs and break it down into pixels. Then, in order to create predictions about the data, they use an operation known as "convolutions," which is the process of producing a mathematical function by combining two other functions.

Computer vision, in its most basic form, makes use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and deep learning to carry out high-speed, high-volume unsupervised learning on visual information. This allows machine learning systems to be trained to interpret data in a manner that is somewhat comparable to how the human eye processes information.

What is Machine Learning?

The creation of algorithms and associated systems that are capable of learning behavior strategies within specific contexts by following instructions and analyzing training data sets is what is referred to as machine learning, or ML.

Machine learning is a subfield of artificial intelligence that, for the most part, ignores some of the most fundamental and philosophical issues surrounding AI. Instead, it places an emphasis on methods of learning and training that may produce computers that are suitable for any given environment. This field focuses on statistical models, algorithms, and learning approaches that can be used to machines in a wide variety of industries, including construction, retail, food production, supply chain logistics, and manufacturing.

Several methodologies for machine learning place an emphasis on training algorithms to discover patterns in data in order to inform strategic decisions in settings that are comparable.

The following strategies fall within this category −

Supervised Learning

In machine learning models that use supervised learning, data scientists feed training data sets to machine learning systems along with a directory of inputs and the expected outputs associated with those inputs. With this method, the machine learning system is able to comprehend the outcomes that are meant to occur from a specific series of activities and devise the most effective tactics for achieving those outcomes.

Unsupervised Learning

Unsupervised learning methods make use of unstructured data sets that do not have any ideal outputs linked with them, as is obvious from the name of these methods. After that, it is up to the machine learning system to analyze the data sets, look for trends, and formulate behavior strategies based on those patterns.

Reinforcement Learning

Reinforcement learning is a method that is often used to teach autonomous computer agents how to behave inside a specific system. This method employs models of cumulative rewards in order to teach agents how to behave within a variety of systems. This use of machine learning is employed in a variety of businesses, but the online multiplayer gaming industry has been the focus of substantial study in this area.

Deep Learning and Neural Networks

Machine learning and artificial intelligence systems have, in the past, often employed either linear or iterative methods of machine learning. Researchers began developing "neural network" brains in the 1980s and continued their work into the 2000s. These brains use node-cluster architecture and weighted decision-making processes. In this way, machine learning systems would be able to break down complicated problems into more manageable ones, and the outcomes of solving more uncomplicated problems would be able to come together to form a solution that is more all-encompassing for more significant difficulties.

Deep learning took this concept one step further by introducing the concept of layer-based neural networks. These networks are comprised of solution-based levels that can collectively function as an emergent problem-solving engine. For instance, a brain that learns by deep reinforcement could contain layers in which more straightforward methods of pattern recognition could be combined to power more complex tasks like facial identification in photos.

The focus, across all of these and other approaches to machine learning, is always on how to teach machine learning systems, simulate training environments for machine learning, and use machine learning to power comprehensive artificial intelligence and autonomous systems. Other approaches to machine learning include deep learning, reinforcement learning, and natural language processing.

Comparison between Computer Vision and Machine Learning

The following table highlights the major differences between Computer Vision and Machine Learning −

Basis of Comparison
Computer Vision
Machine Learning
It gives computers the ability to comprehend and grasp the visual environment in the same manner that humans do.
It gives machines the ability to autonomously learn from their previous experiences and becoming better as a result of those learnings.
The development of methods that enable computers to process, analyze, and understand digital photos, videos, or other digital inputs is the primary focus of this field.
Focuses on the construction of devices that can learn autonomously from their experiences without being expressly programmed to do so.
Image recognition, testing for autonomous cars, medical diagnostics, livestock monitoring and movement analysis are only some of the applications of this technology.
Speech recognition, traffic forecasting, product suggestions, virtual assistants, selfdriving cars, email screening, and other applications are just some of the many possible uses.


The purpose of computer vision is to endow computers with the capacity to perceive their surroundings in a manner analogous to that of a person, enabling these machines to more accurately recognize and comprehend their surroundings as well as perform the right actions. It gives computers the ability to extract useful information from pictures and movies in the same way that people do. One of the many applications of machine learning is computer vision.

Machine learning is a subfield of AI that focuses on getting machines to learn and act like humans. However, in contrast to a system that operates according to a pre-defined set of rules, a machine learning system learns from its previous experiences and acts without being explicitly programmed and with little or no human intervention.