Batch OS vs Multiprogramming OS

Operating Systems are a type of system software that make the hardware functional and create the interface between the user and machine. Several types of operating systems available such as batch operating system, multiprocessing operating system, multiprogramming operating system, distributed operating system, etc.

Batch Operating System

The type of computer operating system which involves batch processing of tasks or jobs is referred to as batch operating system. This type of operating system was very popular in the 1970s.

In the case of batch operating system, a single computer is used to process several tasks grouped in a single unit. In the batch operating system, a series of data, programs, and commands is grouped into a single unit called a job. Several jobs are prepared in this way. After that jobs with similar functions are grouped together in a batch and input to the system for processing. Hence, the jobs are processed in the form of a batch in the batch operating system.

In a batch operating system, batches are processed in the order in which they are received. These jobs are stored in the memory and executed without the need of user’s intervention. The batch OS releases the memory, once the execution of job is completed successfully.

The advantage of the batch operating system is that the time taken to execute all the jobs is considerably reduced. Also, computer system using batch operating system can be shared between multiple users simultaneously. However, in batch processing, we cannot set priority to jobs, hence they are complete in the order in which they received, i.e. first come, first processed.

Multiprogramming Operating System

Operating system which has capability to execute more than one programs or jobs on a single CPU system is called a multiprogramming operating system. In a Multiprogramming OS, all the tasks or jobs or programs are stored in the main memory of the system at the time of processing.

In multiprogramming OS, CPU picks and execute a job in the main memory, when this does is completed or does not require processor, at that time CPU will switch to another job in the memory. In this way, multiprogramming OS increases the CPU and memory utilization.

The major disadvantage of the multiprogramming OS is that it necessarily requires CPU scheduling because multiple jobs are ready to execute by the CPU simultaneously. Also, in multiprogramming OS, user cannot interact with the jobs or programs while their execution.

Differences Between Batch OS and Multiprogramming OS

The following table highlights all the important differences between Batch OS and Multiprogramming OS −

Parameter Batch OS Multiprogramming OS
Definition Batch OS is the type of operating system in which several jobs are grouped as a batch and executed without user intervention. Multiprogramming OS is the type of operating system in which several jobs are executed at a time on a single CPU machine.
Processor Utilization In batch operating system, the process might stay without executing a task. In multiprogramming OS, processor always execute a task.
Advantage Batch helps in minimizing human interaction with the system. Multiprogramming helps in maximizing CPU and memory utilization.
Speed In batch operating system, the processing speed is slower. In multiprogramming operating system, the processing speed is faster.
CPU Idle Time In Batch OS, CPU idle time is large, i.e. CPU could remain idle. In multiprogramming OS, CPU always performs tasks, hence the idle is negligible.
Execution In Batch OS, process execution starts batch wise. In Multiprogramming OS, process execution starts simultaneously.
Wait in Queue In Batch OS, processes have to wait in a queue. In Multiprogramming OS, processes do not have to wait in a queue.


To conclude, a Batch OS executes similar jobs as a batch in the order as they received, while a Multiprogramming OS executes multiple jobs simultaneously.