Found 13 Articles for Genetics

LTR Retrotransposon and its Structure in Eukaryotes

Subhashini Pothukuchi
Updated on 12-May-2023 12:21:44


Introduction Retrotransposons are genetic elements that are capable of replicating and inserting themselves into different parts of the genome. They are found in almost all organisms, including bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. Retrotransposons can be divided into two major classes: non-LTR retrotransposons and LTR retrotransposons. In this article, we will focus on LTR retrotransposons, their structure, and their role in eukaryotic genomes. LTR retrotransposons, also known as Ty elements, are a type of retrotransposon that contain long terminal repeats (LTRs) at their ends. These LTRs are similar in structure to retroviral LTRs, which are also found in viruses that integrate ... Read More

Gene Duplication and its Role in Evolution

Subhashini Pothukuchi
Updated on 12-May-2023 11:31:36


Introduction Gene duplication is a process in which a gene is copied, creating a second copy of the original gene. This process is essential for evolution as it provides an opportunity for the duplicated gene to evolve new functions while the original gene remains intact. In this article, we will explore the concept of gene duplication and its role in evolution. Gene duplication occurs through several mechanisms, including chromosomal duplication, retro transposition, and DNA replication errors. Once a gene is duplicated, the two copies can diverge in function through mutations, such as point mutations, deletions, and insertions. These mutations ... Read More

DNA Supercoiling and Super Helical Stress

Subhashini Pothukuchi
Updated on 12-May-2023 10:57:43


Introduction DNA supercoiling is the twisting or coiling of the double helix structure of DNA, resulting in a strain on the molecule. This strain is known as superhelical stress. Supercoiling is an essential process that occurs in all living organisms and is critical for a variety of cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We will discuss the mechanism of DNA supercoiling and the role of superhelical stress in DNA structure and function. Mechanism of DNA Supercoiling The double helix structure of DNA consists of two complementary strands of nucleotides, which are held together by hydrogen bonds ... Read More

DNA Microarray: Principle, Types, and Steps Involved

Subhashini Pothukuchi
Updated on 12-May-2023 10:39:38


Introduction DNA microarrays are powerful tools for analysing gene expression patterns, detecting DNA mutations, and identifying genetic variations. They are used extensively in research, clinical diagnosis, and drug discovery. The microarray technology is based on the hybridization of labelled DNA or RNA molecules to complementary sequences that are immobilized on a solid substrate. In this article, we will discuss the principle, types, and steps involved in the DNA microarray technology. Principle of DNA MicroarrayThe principle of DNA microarray technology is based on the hybridization of complementary sequences of nucleic acid molecules. The technology involves the preparation of a microarray ... Read More

Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC)

Subhashini Pothukuchi
Updated on 11-May-2023 15:40:19


Introduction Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) is a powerful tool in Genetic Research Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) is a widely used tool in genetic research for the manipulation and study of DNA. BACs are circular DNA molecules that are derived from the F-factor plasmid found in the bacterium E. coli. They can carry large inserts of DNA up to 300 kilobases in size, making them ideal for studying the function and organization of genes and genomes. Origin BACs were first developed in the mid-1990s by Dr. Shizuya and colleagues at the California Institute of Technology. Their work was based on ... Read More

Difference Between Kush and OG

Vineet Nanda
Updated on 19-Apr-2023 13:48:01

1K+ Views

Kush and OG are some of the commonly known strains of Cannabis Sativa. Even though most people mistake them and interchange the names, the two strains are completely dissimilar. Each of the strains has a range of effects on the mind and body of the user. Consequently, they each have a varied range of medicinal benefits. The two strains have a strong and sweet or sour odor to the buds. The odor is also known to provide a relaxing and strong body high that users claim to help treat body pains, general anxiety, and sleeping disorders. What is Kush Cannabis? ... Read More

What Is Difference Between Trp and Lac Operon

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 03-Apr-2023 11:21:13


Introduction Genes are the building blocks of life, and they determine everything from the color of our eyes to our susceptibility to diseases. Two of the most well-known and widely studied gene systems are the Trp and Lac operons. These operons are involved in regulating the expression of genes in bacteria and play an essential role in the survival of these organisms. In this article, we will explore the differences between Trp and Lac operons, their significance, and how they function. What is Trp and Lac operon? Trp operon and Lac operon are two types of operons found ... Read More

Start Codon: Definition and Importance

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 31-Mar-2023 17:23:24


Introduction Protein synthesis is a fundamental process that occurs in all living organisms. It involves the production of proteins from the genetic information encoded in DNA. The process of protein synthesis involves multiple steps, one of which is the initiation of translation. The initiation of translation is regulated by a start codon, also known as an AUG codon. Definition of Start Codon/AUG Codon The start codon, also known as the initiation codon or AUG codon, is a three-nucleotide sequence of mRNA that signals the ribosome to begin protein synthesis. It is always the first codon in an mRNA sequence ... Read More

Stages of Transcription

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 31-Mar-2023 17:16:06


Introduction Transcription is a process that takes place in all living organisms, where genetic information in the form of DNA is converted into a functional molecule of RNA. RNA is a polymer of nucleotides that plays a key role in the synthesis of proteins. Transcription is the first step in gene expression and is a complex process that involves a series of stages. In this tutorial, we will explore the different stages of transcription in detail. Initiation The initiation stage of transcription begins with the recognition of a specific region of DNA called the promoter by RNA polymerase, the ... Read More

RNA Editing: An Overview

Anusha Karthik
Updated on 31-Mar-2023 16:45:09


Introduction RNA, or Ribonucleic Acid, is a vital molecule in the process of protein synthesis. It serves as the template for the formation of proteins, which are the building blocks of life. RNA is synthesized from DNA, or Deoxyribonucleic Acid, and carries the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosome, where it is translated into proteins. RNA Editing is the process of altering the genetic information of RNA molecules. This process can involve the addition, deletion, or modification of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of RNA. RNA Editing is an essential process that plays a crucial role ... Read More