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**(a)** Differentiate between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.

**(b)** Which of the two, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, is made use of:

** (i) **for the production of electricity?

**(ii)** for making a hydrogen bomb?

**(c)** Which produces more energy: nuclear fusion or nuclear fission?

**(d)** Calculate the energy released in joules when 5 g of a material is completely converted into energy doing a nuclear reaction.

**(e)** How much is this energy in MeV? (Speed of light = 3 × 10^{8} m/s)

**(a)** The difference between **nuclear fission** and **nuclear fusion** are as follows:

Basis of Comparison | Nuclear Fission | Nuclear Fusion |

Definition
| It is the splitting of the heavy nucleus of a radioactive atom into smaller nuclei. | It is the fusion of two or more lighter nuclei into a heavy nucleus. |

Natural occurrence of the process
| It does not occur normally in nature. | It occurs normally in nature, like in stars (sun). |

Energy released
| The energy released by fission is a million times greater than that released in chemical reactions but is lower than the energy released by nuclear fusion. | The energy released by fusion is three to four times greater than the energy released by fission. |

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**(b) (i)** **Nuclear fission** is used for the production of electricity.

** (ii) Nuclear fusion** is used for making hydrogen bombs.

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**(c) Nuclear fusion** produces more energy than nuclear fission, as the energy released by fusion is three to four times greater than the energy released by fission.

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**(d) Given,**

Mass, **m **= 5g = $(\frac {5}{1000}kg)$.

Speed of light, c = 3.8 × 10^{8} m/s.

**To find: **Energy, $E$ (in Joules)**.**

__Solution__

We know Einstein's equation as:

**$E=m{c}^{2}$**

Substituting the given values in the above equation

**$E=\left(\frac{5}{1000}\right)\times {\left(3\times {10}^{8}\right)}^{2}$ **

**$E=4.5\times {10}^{14}J$**

Hence, the energy released** **= **4.5 x 10 ^{14}Joule**

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**(e)** The energy in MeV is given by:

**$1MeV=1.602\times {10}^{-13}J$**

**$1J=\frac{1}{1.602\times {10}^{-13}}MeV$**

**$4.5\times {10}^{14}J=\frac{1}{1.602\times {10}^{-13}}\times 4.5\times {10}^{14}=2.8\times {10}^{27}MeV$**

This energy in MeV = **2.8 × 1027 MeV**