(a) Differentiate between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.(b) Which of the two, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion,  is made use of: (i) for the production of electricity?(ii) for making a hydrogen bomb?(c) Which produces more energy: nuclear fusion or nuclear fission?(d) Calculate the energy released in joules when 5 g of a material is completely converted into energy doing a nuclear reaction.(e) How much is this energy in MeV? (Speed of light = 3 × 108 m/s)

(a) The difference between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion are as follows:

 Basis of Comparison Nuclear Fission Nuclear Fusion Definition It is the splitting of the heavy nucleus of a radioactive atom into smaller nuclei. It is the fusion of two or more lighter nuclei into a heavy nucleus. Natural occurrence of the process It does not occur normally in nature. It occurs normally in nature, like in stars (sun). Energy released The energy released by fission is a million times greater than that released in chemical reactions but is lower than the energy released by nuclear fusion. The energy released by fusion is three to four times greater than the energy released by fission.

(b) (i) Nuclear fission is used for the production of electricity.

(ii) Nuclear fusion is used for making hydrogen bombs.

(c) Nuclear fusion produces more energy than nuclear fission, as the energy released by fusion is three to four times greater than the energy released by fission.

(d) Given,

Mass, m = 5g =  $(\frac {5}{1000}kg)$.

Speed of light, c = 3.8 × 108 m/s.

To find: Energy, $E$ (in Joules).

Solution

We know Einstein's equation as:

$E=m{c}^{2}$

Substituting the given values in the above equation

$E=\left(\frac{5}{1000}\right)\times {\left(3\times {10}^{8}\right)}^{2}$

$E=4.5\times {10}^{14}J$

Hence, the energy released = 4.5 x 10 14Joule

(e) The energy in MeV is given by:

$1MeV=1.602\times {10}^{-13}J$

$1J=\frac{1}{1.602\times {10}^{-13}}MeV$

$4.5\times {10}^{14}J=\frac{1}{1.602\times {10}^{-13}}\times 4.5\times {10}^{14}=2.8\times {10}^{27}MeV$

This energy in MeV = 2.8 × 1027 MeV

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Updated on: 10-Oct-2022

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