Which is better: Java or Python? And how?


The two most popular programming languages are Java and Python. Both are high-level, general-purpose programming languages that are widely used. Developers currently utilize the Java programming language to create web and desktop apps. Python is utilized in the development of machine learning applications and data science. Choosing between the two is challenging.

In this article, we will compare whether Java or Python is a better programming language.

What is Python?

Python is a high-level, object-oriented, dynamic, and multipurpose programming language. Python's syntax, dynamic typing, and interpreted nature make it an excellent scripting language.

It supports a variety of programming paradigms, including object-oriented, functional, and procedural styles. Additionally, because it is an interpreted language, it cannot be converted to computer-readable code before running at runtime.

Features of Python

  • Python is simple to learn and has a clear syntax.

  • It is extensible to a greater extent.

  • It is free, open-source, and cross-platform.

  • Python is an object-oriented programming language(OOPs) with high readability and reliability.

  • Python can be used for prototyping and testing code that will subsequently be utilized to create a full-fledged application using higher-level languages.

  • It comes with a large standard library that includes XML parsers excel interface and so on.

Uses of Python

  • Data analysis and machine learning— Python is frequently utilized in modern technologies such as Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. Python's support for multiple libraries makes it ideal for developing machine-learning models.

  • Web development

  • Automation or scripting

  • Software testing and prototyping

  • Game development

  • Language development

  • Data visualization

  • Finance

  • Programming Applications

  • Everyday tasks

  • It is a popular language in robotics and is often used for Robotic Process Automation.

What is Java?

Java, like C++, is an object-oriented programming language. Yet, its advanced and simplified features set distinct from C++. It is completely free to use. It is a concurrent, class-based, and independent language.

Features of Java

  • Simple

  • Java is an Object-Oriented programming language

  • Portable − Java is portable because it allows you to move Java bytecode from one platform to another. It does not need any implementation.

  • Platform independent − Java is platform independent in contrast to other languages such as C, C++, and others, which are compiled into platform-specific machines, whereas Java is a write-once, run-anywhere language. The hardware or software environment in which a program runs is referred to as a platform.

  • Secured

  • Robust − since it has strong memory management, and avoids security problems as there are no pointers available.

  • Architecture neutral − because there are no implementation-dependent features i.e, for eg − the size of primitive types is fixed.

    The int data type in C programming occupies 2 bytes of memory for 32-bit architecture and 4 bytes of memory for 64-bit architecture. However, it takes up 4 bytes of Memory in Java for both 32 and 64-bit architectures.

  • Interpreted

  • High Performance

  • Multithreaded

  • Distributed

  • Dynamic

Uses of Java

Java is the optimal language for creating the following applications −

  • Enterprise Solutions

  • Desktop Application

  • Embedded Systems

  • Middleware Applications

Comparison between Java and Python

Performance- Speed and Efficiency

In contrast to Python, Java is a statically typed programming language that facilitates compilation easier. Through JIT, the JVM speeds code execution. JIT has the advantage of converting byte code to native machine code more quickly.

Python developers, on the other hand, enhanced code execution through various programming language implementations. Jython (compiles Python code into Java bytecode) and Cython (compiles Python code into C and C++) are two tools used by developers to speed up execution. It is also used to improve the performance of Python programs.

While Java programs are directly compiled, Python applications are interpreted, which slows them down during execution. Determining the variable type during runtime increases the interpreter's burden. Memory use is also increased by remembering the object type of items obtained from container objects.

So, java has high performance than python

Popularity

Both languages have long competed for attention. However, since the introduction of JavaScript, they have been competing for the top rank.

Python was named the fastest-growing programming language in Stackoveer's 2018 developer poll, overtaking C++. Despite the fact that the gap between the two languages had decreased dramatically, many developers preferred Java.

However, according to GitHub's Octoverse, in 2021, Java placed third in the most popular and most utilized languages, defeating both JavaScript and Python. Here java wins.

Syntax

Python's syntax is very easy and simple to understand. Syntax in Java is complex, big, and difficult to remember.

Fixing bugs

Any bugs introduced by the programmer will not be noticed until that line of code is executed in python. This increases the risk of operational errors and extends turnaround time. While Python objects are prone to mutation, object mutations are impossible in Java. This results in safe software development.

Python and Java can work together to solve problems owing to integration tools like SnapLogic. SnapLogic provides tools for connecting multiple software applications and data sources in the cloud, on-premises, and hybrid software environments.

Code Readability

In contrast to Python, Java is a statically typed programming language that simplifies compilation. Through JIT, the JVM speeds code execution. JIT has the advantage of converting byte code to native machine code more fastly.

Python developers, on the other hand, sped up code execution through various programming language implementations. Jython (compiles Python code into Java bytecode) and Cython (compiles Python code into C and C++) are two tools used by developers to speed up execution. It is also used to improve the performance of Python programs.

Game Development

C++/C# is unquestionably the top in PC game development, and neither Java nor Python can compete with it. C# has always given the finest performance and a flawless user experience to gamers. Now, Java and Python, in particular, are not slow, but they cannot deliver the experience that C# has thus far.

In reply to the most frequently asked question, which is better, Java or Python, Python is preferable in gaming development. Java is another good data science language that supports Big Data terminology. Python, on the other hand, has an advantage in gaming development functions due to its low syntactic complexity and user-friendliness for newcomers. Thus, when it comes to which is faster, Java or Python, Python clearly wins.

Learning Curve

Python's simple, the expressive syntax makes it easier for newcomers to begin writing code. We do not need to declare variables in Python before using them. It automatically determines its type. As a result, learning Python is simple.

Java, on the other hand, requires us to create additional code to represent concepts and do common activities. We cannot use a variable in Java without first defining its type. However, many beginners use Java to create web and mobile applications.

Standard Library

Python includes a vast and comprehensive standard library. The library saves the programmer's time and effort. The developer has the option of selecting from approximately 130000 (approx.) libraries that can be used for various reasons. Python includes text processing, image processing, web and testing frameworks, and so on.

Java also includes libraries, but these are customized to the requirements of the developer. So Python has a larger library than Java.

Difference between Java and Python

Python is a dynamically typed, interpreted programming language. It signifies that there is no need to declare variables. Because Java is a compiled and statically-typed language, variables must be declared explicitly.

Python syntaxes are simple, making it more productive and allowing us to develop programs quickly. Syntaxes in Java are complex, verbose, and difficult to remember. Another reason Python is more productive than Java is that it is significantly shorter.

The following is the differences table between python and java −

Parameters Java Python
Performance Java is faster Python is relatively slower
Learning curve Java is Difficult to learn Python is very easy to learn and has fewer lines of code
Typing It is Statically-typed Python is Dynamically-typed
Verbosity Java is Verbose Python is very concise and simple
Compiled/ Interpreted Java is a Compiled language Java is an Interpreted language
Object-oriented or Scripting Language Java is Object-oriented Language Python is Object-oriented as well as Scripting Language
Cross-Platform Yes Yes
Syntax The syntax of java is very difficult to remember The syntax of python is very easy to remember
Suitable for Enterprise, Embedded, and Cross-platform application Artificial Intelligence, Data Science and Machine Learning
Lines of Code Java has more lines of code Python has fewer lines of code

In this article, we learned about the features and applications of Python and Java, as well as the differences between them. Finally, we compared Python and Java to determine which one is better.

Updated on: 25-Nov-2022

342 Views

Kickstart Your Career

Get certified by completing the course

Get Started
Advertisements