What is the Architecture of Internet of Things (IoT)?

Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated, internet-connected objects which are able to collect and transfer data over a wireless network without human intervention.

For example, smart fitness bands or watches, driverless cars or drones, smart homes that can be unlocked through smartphones and smart cars, etc.

Architecture of IoT

There are different phases in the architecture of IoT but they can vary according to the situations but generally, there are these four phases in the architecture of IoT −

Networked Devices

These are the physical devices which include sensors, actuators, and transducers. These are the actual devices that collect and send the data for processing. They are capable of receiving real-time data and they can convert the physical quantities into electrical signals which can be sent through a network.

Data Aggregation

It is a very important stage as it includes converting the raw data collected by sensors into meaningful data which can be used to take actions. It also includes Data Acquisition Systems and Internet Gateways. It converts the Analog signals provided by sensors into digital signals.

Final Analysis

This is a stage that includes edge IT analytics and the processing of data to make it more efficient and fully capable of execution. It also includes managing and locating all the devices correctly

Cloud Analysis

The final data is received here and analysed closely and precisely in data centres. They process and clean the data to make it free from any kind of errors and missing values. After this stage, data is ready to be sent back and executed to perform operations.

Now let us see the basic fundamental architecture of IoT which consists of four stages as shown in the diagram given below

  • Sensing Layer − The first stage of IoT includes sensors, devices, actuators etc. which collect data from the physical environment, processes it and then sends it over the network.

  • Network Layer − The second stage of the IoT consists of Network Gateways and Data Acquisition Systems. DAS converts the analogue data (collected from Sensors) into Digital Data. It also performs malware detection and data management.

  • Data Processing Layer − The third stage of IoT is the most important stage. Here, data is pre-processed on its variety and separated accordingly. After this, it is sent to Data Centres. Here Edge IT comes into use.

  • Application Layer − The fourth stage of IoT consists of Cloud/Data Centres where data is managed and used by applications like agriculture, defence, health care etc.


The advantages of IoT are as follows −

  • Cost Reduction − IOT devices catch any problem very fast as compared to traditional troubleshooting. It not only saves time but also saves costs of large repairs.

  • Efficiency and Productivity − An automated PDF conversion and creation tool will remove the hustle of PDF editing and archiving. Hence, increase in Efficiency and Productivity.

  • Business Opportunities − IOT provides advanced analytics, smart utility grids which help Small Management Businesses to provide more valuable content and things to their customers.

  • Customer Experience − Nowadays customer's experience is the most valuable thing in running a business. IoT has drastically increased the customer's experience. An example of customer experience is Home Automation. Since everything is connected, customers need not have to worry about appliances. One can turn off the appliance through mobile.

  • Mobility and Agility − With the help of IoT, employees can do their work from any geographical location, anytime without any restrictions.


The disadvantages of IoT are as follows −

  • Security − The data is travelling all over the Internet. So maintaining its privacy is still a Big Challenge. End-to-end Encryption is a must in IoT.

  • Compatibility − There is no International Standard for the monitoring of the equipment.

  • Complexity − Most of the devices still contain some software bugs. Each device must be able to seamlessly interact with other devices in the network.

  • Safety − Suppose a patient is left unattended by a doctor. And some notorious guy changes the prescription or Health monitoring devices malfunctioned. Then it can result in the death of the patient.

  • Policies − Government authorities must take some steps to make policies and standards related to IoT to stop the Black marketing of IoT devices.

The technologies supported by IoT are as follows −

  • Big Data Analytics

  • Cloud

  • Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Embedded Systems

Updated on: 14-Sep-2023

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