Practical Cryptography for the Internet of Things (IoT)

IoT connects different gadgets so they may communicate and advance in intelligence. It integrates everything from household devices to industrial machines with the internet. These connected devices can receive and transmit signals, can understand commands from people, can work with a network of IoT−enabled devices. For instance, a smart home or smart city is a core application of the internet of things. With the Internet of Things, there are numerous ways to link devices, including WiFi, Bluetooth, cellular networks, LPWAN, and others.

The term internet of things itself had the word internet. Any device connected to the internet is prone to get hacked, leading to data leakage. Hence, along with the advancements in technology, we also need to find ways to avoid significant concerns that occur as a result. One of these types of major problems is security. Consumers today are not negotiating to spend if the services are qualified and secure.

Security concerns are a fundamental downside of IoT connections. You may have heard of businesses' significant losses due to IoT−compromised networks. IoT installations further raise the danger of hacking because data is spread across multiple locations in the network, including edge devices, ports, and central servers. Cryptography significantly reduces these risks and promotes the success of IoT businesses.

How Does Cryptography Secure IoT Deployments?

IoT devices transmit enormous volumes of data, much of which is sensitive, private, or otherwise valuable, and are expected to reach 79.4 zettabytes in 2025. Hackers are on fire where data is there. Therefore, IoT enterprises must discover a means of avoiding hackers.

In IoT−deployed devices, cryptography can be seen in many security settings. IoT−connected devices send and receive tons of data every second. So, to secure the data in communication channels, there are various network protocols like TLS and SSH to ensure that data transmitted over the network is secure. But, just securing the data in the central IoT communications became outdated. It's also necessary to secure additional communication channels that might be integrated into IoT devices. Secondary channels include adding extra communication channels to offer clients customized services like creating a web portal from which they may access IoT devices.

In a broader aspect, the private key authentication concept secures the IoT network from the very beginning. Private key authentication gives every new machine a unique identity that needs to be evaluated while entering the network. Cryptography safeguards the system at each stage of connecting the IoT network.

If hackers enter the channel by chance, the data can be hacked or accessed. Here, cryptography provides a way to secure our data through encryption and decryption of shared messages, even though hackers enter communication channels.

This technique mainly has two keys one is public, and the other is private. If we use the private key to encrypt data, then we need the public key to decrypt it, and vice versa also works. These keys are only given to authorized and specific users to access data. At some point, when traveling across the internet, the data that the majority of IoT devices transfer gets secured. So, just entering the network is not enough for hackers to steal the data in IoT.

Challenges Of Cryptography In IoT

Along with the advantages of cryptography in IoT, we also must face a few challenges in integrating cryptography into IoT. IoT devices' limitations must be considered while installing cryptography because they offer low computing ability. Low−energy IoT devices have hardware constraints like processing speed and storage capabilities, whereas cryptography solutions demand high mathematical strategies.

Another challenge cryptography brings to IoT is encryption algorithms management. Some studies say AES is a heavy encryption algorithm for IoT devices to handle. However, lightweight devices cannot provide customized protection to the network or consumers. So, it's always in the lab to discover lightweight encryption cryptography algorithms, especially for IoT deployments. The vast number of connected devices in IoT connections also made it difficult to keep track of encryption and decryption keys.

Home lights, fitness devices, and smartwatches are all examples of low−energy IoT devices. Their ROM or RAM storage capacity will be limited, so it isn't easy to implement complex cryptography ideas in them.


Over the next few years, it's expected that the number of IoT devices in use will increase quickly. Soon, sensors and intelligent devices will also be seen in developing countries houses. It's difficult to avoid the outcomes of IoT devices in today's world. So, to fully utilize IoT technology, we need to look into new security choices. One option is cryptography. Cryptographic protocols, both new and ancient, can help safeguard IoT devices. Numerous cryptographic studies can advance IoT in the market further.