What is Functional Testing (Types & Examples)?

What is Functional Testing?

Functional Testing is a form of software testing in which the software system is validated against the functional requirements/specifications. The goal of functional testing is to test each feature of a software program by giving adequate data and comparing the outcome to the Functional requirements.

Functional testing is particularly concerned with black-box testing and is unconcerned with the application's source code. This testing examines the Application Under Test's User Interface, APIs, Database, Security, Client/Server connection, and other features. Testing can be performed automatically or manually.

What do you test in Functional Testing?

The primary goal of functional testing is to ensure that the software system functions properly. It mostly focuses on -

  • Mainline functions − A test of an application's primary functionalities.

  • Fundamental Usability − It entails testing the system's basic functionality. It determines whether or not a consumer can easily browse through the screens without difficulty.

  • Accessibility − Examines the system's usability for the operator.

  • Error Conditions − The use of testing procedures to detect errors. It determines whether appropriate error messages are presented.

How to do Functional Testing?

The following is a step-by-step procedure for doing Functional Testing −

  • Recognize the Required Functionality

  • Determine the test input of test data depending on the requirements.

  • Calculate the predicted results using the test input data you've chosen.

  • Carry out test cases

  • Contrast the real and calculated predicted results.

Functional Vs Non-Functional Testing

Functional TestingNon-Functional Testing
Functional testing validates the system against the functionality using the functional specification supplied by the customer.Non-functional testing examines the software system's performance, stability, adaptability, and other nonfunctional features.
First, functional testing is carried out.After functional testing, non-functional testing should be carried out.
For functional testing, either manual testing or automated technologies can be employed.This testing will be more productive if tools are used.
The inputs to functional testing are business requirements.Non-functional testing takes into account performance metrics such as speed and scalability.
The product's functionality is described in functional testing.Nonfunctional testing evaluates how well the product functions.
Manual testing is simple to do.Manual testing is difficult.
Examples of Functional Testing −
  • Unit Testing

  • Smoke Testing

  • Sanity Testing

  • Integration Testing

  • White-box testing

  • Black Box testing

  • User Acceptance testing

  • Regression Testing