What are the pros and cons of using Python vs. Java?

In this article, we will learn the pros and cons of using Python vs. Java.

Pros of Java

  • Simple − Java is a must-know programming language due of its simplicity. Because it is C++-based and uses automated garbage collection, we don't have to worry about freeing up memory for things that are no longer being used. To further simplify Java for both reading and writing, features such as explicit pointers and operator overloading have been removed.

  • Object-Oriented − As an Object-Oriented Programming Language, Java has many useful features such as Data Encapsulation, Inheritance, Data Hiding, and so on. As a result, Java is a good language for mapping real-world entities into objects and solving real-world issues.

  • Platform Independent − The compilation of code in Java is not platform-specific, but rather occurs as platform-independent bytecode. After that, the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) interprets it. There is no OS needed for running the software. This guarantees that your code will operate on Mac, Windows, Linux, and any other platform that supports the Java Virtual Machine. As a consequence, we can reach more people. It follows the Write once, run anywhere principle.

  • Secure − It assists developers in creating safe and tamper-proof code by utilizing public-key encryption.

  • Multithreaded − Java may be used to create applications that use several threads simultaneously. Most current computers have processors that can run many threads at once, and you may leverage this to your advantage when making applications with multiple purposes.

  • Robust − Strong memory management is one of the reasons Java is such a stable programming language. Java code may also be used to deal with errors. To further strengthen our code's safety, we may additionally use type-checking. Since it does not make use of explicit pointers, programs cannot do direct memory access.

  • Distributed Computing − Java's support for distributed computing stems from the language's inclusion of many APIs for establishing connections to external resources, such as CORBA and RMI.

Cons of Using Java

Memory management

Java's built-in support for managing memory helps to speed up the development process. The efficiency and precision of garbage collection may likely drop to the point where it is equal to human work. Because of this, Java applications rely heavily on in-memory processing and manipulation.

Code readability

Java applications are subject to being lengthy because of the complexity of their extensive code courses. If the developer has not given sufficient documentation and notes, understanding and analysing the system may take some time.


When compared to other languages, Java necessitates a large amount of memory space.

As there are high memory and processing requirements, so does the cost of hardware increase.


Every time Java code is executed, it is interpreted by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Consequently, productivity falls. Data processing in real-time is currently not possible with Java.

Garbage collection

When it comes to garbage collection, Java enables automated garbage collection over which the programmer has no say. Memory-freeing methods like delete() and free() are not included. Java's merits, which include being platform-independent, secure, and robust, have helped to keep it one of the most popular programming languages despite these drawbacks.

Pros of Python

  • Easy and short Syntax − The syntax is simple and thus easily picked up by programmers.

  • Expressive Language − Small snippets of code can be used to finish large lines of code.

  • Cross-Platform Language − Works across all operating systems.

  • Smooth Learning Curve − Python is a very accessible programming language that is typically introduced to students as a first programming language course. This tool lets you put a limit on the way a developer thinks by forcing them to concentrate on the most basic principles and building blocks of their skill.

  • Free and Open Source − Python is a free and open-source programming language that may be accessed from anywhere worldwide.

  • Vast Standard Library − The offerings of these libraries, such as MatPlotLib, Pandas, Request, NumPy, and others, are vast and make the task of a developer quite simple.

  • Flexible with other languages and tools − Python is a versatile programming language that can be readily integrated with a wide range of tools and frameworks to handle a wide range of problems.

  • Versatility combined with a vast toolkit for practically anything − Python can be used for a wide range of jobs, including data automation, data scientists, data engineers, QA engineers, and DevOps specialists.

  • High Speed of Development − When it comes to studying and creating Python-based software, the straightforward syntax greatly reduces complexity and increases productivity. Using pre-coded components saves time and effort by providing reusable building blocks for new software projects.

Cons of Using Python

  • Less Speed − It is slower because it is an interpreted language. Despite Python's incredible development speed, Java and C++ still dominate it in terms of execution speed. Program execution is slowed down by the interpreter used to inspect and assign variables.

  • No Multithreading − The Global Interpreter Lock, or GIL, mechanism lies at the core of Python. It only allows the execution of one set of bytecode instructions at once. While limiting the performance of multi-threaded systems created to run numerous workflows simultaneously, GIL enhances the performance of single-threaded programs.

  • High Memory Consumption − The Python garbage collector delays returning system resources once an item is no longer in use. This causes Python's memory problems to occur often.

  • Challenges with front-end and mobile development − Not a single smartphone platform supports the Python programming language. Java is used only for Android app development, whereas Swift and Objective C are used exclusively for iOS app development. Therefore, Python can't keep up with the growing mobile market and sustain its popularity.

  • Because of its limitations in mobile computing, it is not employed in app development.

  • Python's mobile computing features are weak. As a result, it is not commonly utilized in application development.

  • Since Python is dynamic, mistakes are displayed at run time. Because no errors are generated at compile time, developers running large chunks of code may lose time.

  • There is no commercial support.


There are several ways in which Python and Java are equivalent to one another. However, there are a few key areas of variation between the two, including execution speed and constraints, the usage of classes during programming, and a few more.

The functioning and selection of either language are determined by the user's preferences as well as their accessibility. Although gathering knowledge on your own can be difficult.

Updated on: 02-Jan-2023


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