Types of Electric Motors Used in Industrial Electric Drives

Electric TractionElectric DrivesUtilisation of Electrical PowerPower System Engineering

Electric motor drives are the basic assemblies used for the transformation of electrical power into mechanical energy. In simple words, the term "electric motor drive" is used to denote drives driven by electric motors.

Types of Motors Used for Electric Drives

Following are the different types of motors used for industrial electric drives −

  • DC series motor

  • DC shunt motor

  • Cumulative compound DC motor

  • Slip ring induction motor

  • Squirrel cage induction motor

  • Double squirrel cage induction motor

  • Three phase synchronous motor

  • Single-phase synchronous motor

  • Single-phase AC series motor

  • Repulsion motor

  • Capacitor-start induction-run motor

  • Capacitor-start capacitor-run motor

Now let's check in detail the applications of each of these motors.

DC Shunt Motor

DC shunt motor has medium starting torque and an approximately constant speed.

Applications − DC shunt motors are used for nearly constant speed applications such as −

  • For driving constant speed line shafts

  • Lathe machines

  • Vacuum cleaners

  • Washing machines

  • Elevators and conveyors

  • Grinders

  • Small printing presses, etc.

Cumulative Compound DC Motor

A cumulative compound motor has high starting torque and variable speed.

Applications − Cumulative compound DC motors are used for driving −

  • Compressors

  • Centrifugal pumps

  • Shearing machines

  • Elevators

  • Continuous conveyors

  • Circular saws

  • Rotary presses, etc.

Slip Ring Induction Motor

Slip ring induction motor has high starting torque and large overload capacity. Also, the speed of a slip ring induction motor can be changed up to 50% of its normal speed.

Applications − Slip ring induction motors are widely used for the electric drives which require high starting and wide range of speed control such as −

  • Elevators

  • Compressors

  • Lifts

  • Line shafts

  • Pumps

  • Winding machines

  • Printing presses, etc.

Squirrel Cage Induction Motor

Squirrel cage induction motor is rugged and has high overload capacity. This motor has nearly constant speed, however it has poor starting torque.

Applications − Squirrel cage induction motors are used in low and medium power drives where speed control is not required such as−

  • Water pumps

  • Lathe machines

  • Grinders and drill machines

  • Wood planers

  • Fans

  • Blowers and compressors, etc.

Double Squirrel Cage Induction Motor

Double squirrel cage induction motor has high starting torque, large overload capacity and nearly constant speed.

Applications − Double squirrel cage induction motors are used for electric drives which require high starting torque such as−

  • Compressor pumps

  • Crushers

  • Boring mills

  • Cranes

  • Punches and lathe machines, etc.

Three-phase Synchronous Motor

Three-phase synchronous motor has constant speed under varying loads

Applications − Three-phase synchronous motors are used for electric drives where continuous constant speed is required such as −

  • Air compressors

  • Motor-generator sets

  • In the electric drives used in paper and cement industries

  • Continuous rolling mills

Single-phase Synchronous Motor

Single-phase synchronous motor has constant speed.

Applications − Single-phase synchronous motors are widely used in −

  • Timing devices

  • Clocks

  • Tele printers

  • Recording devices

  • Sound recording and reproducing systems, etc.

Single-phase AC Series Motor

Single-phase AC series motor has high starting torque and speed control over a wide range.

Applications − Single-phase AC series motor is used for driving small electric appliances such as −

  • Vacuum cleaners

  • Refrigerators, etc.

Repulsion Motor

Repulsion motor has high starting torque and wide range of speed control. Also, it has high speed at high loads.

Applications − Repulsion motors are used for electric drives which require large starting torque and constant speed (adjustable) such as coil winding machines.−

Capacitor-start Induction-run Motor

Capacitor-start induction-run motor has moderately high starting torque and a nearly constant speed. In this motor, speed control is not possible.

Applications − Capacitor-start induction-run motor is used in −

  • Refrigerators

  • Compressors

  • Small hoists, etc.

Capacitor-start Capacitor-run Motor

Capacitor-start capacitor-run motor has moderately high starting torque and fairly constant speed. However, it has better power factor and high efficiency.

Applications − Capacitor-start capacitor-run motors are widely used in electric drives which require quiet operation.

raja
Updated on 28-Apr-2022 08:14:48

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