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Types of Electric Motors Used in Industrial Electric Drives
Electric motor drives are the basic assemblies used for the transformation of electrical power into mechanical energy. In simple words, the term "electric motor drive" is used to denote drives driven by electric motors.
Types of Motors Used for Electric Drives
Following are the different types of motors used for industrial electric drives −
DC series motor
DC shunt motor
Cumulative compound DC motor
Slip ring induction motor
Squirrel cage induction motor
Double squirrel cage induction motor
Three phase synchronous motor
Single-phase synchronous motor
Single-phase AC series motor
Capacitor-start induction-run motor
Capacitor-start capacitor-run motor
Now let's check in detail the applications of each of these motors.
DC Shunt Motor
DC shunt motor has medium starting torque and an approximately constant speed.
Applications − DC shunt motors are used for nearly constant speed applications such as −
For driving constant speed line shafts
Elevators and conveyors
Small printing presses, etc.
Cumulative Compound DC Motor
A cumulative compound motor has high starting torque and variable speed.
Applications − Cumulative compound DC motors are used for driving −
Rotary presses, etc.
Slip Ring Induction Motor
Slip ring induction motor has high starting torque and large overload capacity. Also, the speed of a slip ring induction motor can be changed up to 50% of its normal speed.
Applications − Slip ring induction motors are widely used for the electric drives which require high starting and wide range of speed control such as −
Printing presses, etc.
Squirrel Cage Induction Motor
Squirrel cage induction motor is rugged and has high overload capacity. This motor has nearly constant speed, however it has poor starting torque.
Applications − Squirrel cage induction motors are used in low and medium power drives where speed control is not required such as−
Grinders and drill machines
Blowers and compressors, etc.
Double Squirrel Cage Induction Motor
Double squirrel cage induction motor has high starting torque, large overload capacity and nearly constant speed.
Applications − Double squirrel cage induction motors are used for electric drives which require high starting torque such as−
Punches and lathe machines, etc.
Three-phase Synchronous Motor
Three-phase synchronous motor has constant speed under varying loads
Applications − Three-phase synchronous motors are used for electric drives where continuous constant speed is required such as −
In the electric drives used in paper and cement industries
Continuous rolling mills
Single-phase Synchronous Motor
Single-phase synchronous motor has constant speed.
Applications − Single-phase synchronous motors are widely used in −
Sound recording and reproducing systems, etc.
Single-phase AC Series Motor
Single-phase AC series motor has high starting torque and speed control over a wide range.
Applications − Single-phase AC series motor is used for driving small electric appliances such as −
Repulsion motor has high starting torque and wide range of speed control. Also, it has high speed at high loads.
Applications − Repulsion motors are used for electric drives which require large starting torque and constant speed (adjustable) such as coil winding machines.−
Capacitor-start Induction-run Motor
Capacitor-start induction-run motor has moderately high starting torque and a nearly constant speed. In this motor, speed control is not possible.
Applications − Capacitor-start induction-run motor is used in −
Small hoists, etc.
Capacitor-start Capacitor-run Motor
Capacitor-start capacitor-run motor has moderately high starting torque and fairly constant speed. However, it has better power factor and high efficiency.
Applications − Capacitor-start capacitor-run motors are widely used in electric drives which require quiet operation.
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