Swift - Protocols



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Protocols provide a blueprint for Methods, properties and other requirements functionality. It is just described as a methods or properties skeleton instead of implementation. Methods and properties implementation can further be done by defining classes, functions and enumerations. Conformance of a protocol is defined as the methods or properties satisfying the requirements of the protocol.

Syntax

Protocols also follow the similar syntax as that of classes, structures, and enumerations −

protocol SomeProtocol {
   // protocol definition 
}

Protocols are declared after the class, structure or enumeration type names. Single and Multiple protocol declarations are also possible. If multiple protocols are defined they have to be separated by commas.

struct SomeStructure: Protocol1, Protocol2 {
   // structure definition 
}

When a protocol has to be defined for super class, the protocol name should follow the super class name with a comma.

class SomeClass: SomeSuperclass, Protocol1, Protocol2 {
   // class definition 
}

Property and Method Requirements

Protocol is used to specify particular class type property or instance property. It just specifies the type or instance property alone rather than specifying whether it is a stored or computed property. Also, it is used to specify whether the property is 'gettable' or 'settable'.

Property requirements are declared by 'var' keyword as property variables. {get set} is used to declare gettable and settable properties after their type declaration. Gettable is mentioned by {get} property after their type declaration.

Live Demo
protocol classa {
   var marks: Int { get set }
   var result: Bool { get }
   
   func attendance() -> String
   func markssecured() -> String
}

protocol classb: classa {
   var present: Bool { get set }
   var subject: String { get set }
   var stname: String { get set }
}

class classc: classb {
   var marks = 96
   let result = true
   var present = false
   var subject = "Swift 4 Protocols"
   var stname = "Protocols"

   func attendance() -> String {
      return "The \(stname) has secured 99% attendance"
   }
   func markssecured() -> String {
      return "\(stname) has scored \(marks)"
   }
}

let studdet = classc()
studdet.stname = "Swift 4"
studdet.marks = 98
studdet.markssecured()

print(studdet.marks)
print(studdet.result)
print(studdet.present)
print(studdet.subject)
print(studdet.stname)

When we run the above program using playground, we get the following result −

98
true
false
Swift 4 Protocols
Swift 4

Mutating Method Requirements

protocol daysofaweek {
   mutating func print()
}

enum days: daysofaweek {
   case sun, mon, tue, wed, thurs, fri, sat 
   mutating func print() {
      switch self {
         case sun:
            self = sun
            print("Sunday")
         case mon:
            self = mon
            print("Monday")
         case tue:
            self = tue
            print("Tuesday")
         case wed:
            self = wed
            print("Wednesday")
         case mon:
            self = thurs
            print("Thursday")
         case tue:
            self = fri
            print("Friday")
         case sat:
            self = sat
            print("Saturday")
         default:
            print("NO Such Day")
      }
   }
}

var res = days.wed
res.print()

When we run the above program using playground, we get the following result −

Wednesday

Initializer Requirements

Swing allows the user to initialize protocols to follow type conformance similar to that of normal initializers.

Syntax

protocol SomeProtocol {
   init(someParameter: Int)
}

For example

protocol tcpprotocol {
   init(aprot: Int)
}

Class Implementations of Protocol Initializer Requirements

Designated or convenience initializer allows the user to initialize a protocol to conform its standard by the reserved 'required' keyword.

class SomeClass: SomeProtocol {
   required init(someParameter: Int) {
      // initializer implementation statements
   }
}

protocol tcpprotocol {
   init(aprot: Int)
}

class tcpClass: tcpprotocol {
   required init(aprot: Int) {
   }
}

Protocol conformance is ensured on all subclasses for explicit or inherited implementation by 'required' modifier.

When a subclass overrides its super class initialization requirement it is specified by the 'override' modifier keyword.

protocol tcpprotocol {
   init(no1: Int)
}

class mainClass {
   var no1: Int        // local storage
   init(no1: Int) {
      self.no1 = no1  // initialization
   }
}

class subClass: mainClass, tcpprotocol {
   var no2: Int
   init(no1: Int, no2 : Int) {
      self.no2 = no2
      super.init(no1:no1)
   }
   // Requires only one parameter for convenient method
   required override convenience init(no1: Int) {
      self.init(no1:no1, no2:0)
   }
}

let res = mainClass(no1: 20)
let print = subClass(no1: 30, no2: 50)

print("res is: \(res.no1)")
print("res is: \(print.no1)")
print("res is: \(print.no2)")

When we run the above program using playground, we get the following result −

res is: 20
res is: 30
res is: 50

Protocols as Types

Instead of implementing functionalities in a protocol they are used as types for functions, classes, methods etc.

Protocols can be accessed as types in −

  • Function, method or initialize as a parameter or return type

  • Constant, variable or property

  • Arrays, dictionaries or other containers as items

protocol Generator {
   typealias members
   func next() -> members?
}

var items = [10,20,30].generate()
while let x = items.next() {
   print(x)
}

for lists in map([1,2,3], {i in i*5}) {
   print(lists)
}

print([100,200,300])
print(map([1,2,3], {i in i*10}))

When we run the above program using playground, we get the following result −

10
20
30
5
10
15
[100, 200, 300]
[10, 20, 30]

Adding Protocol Conformance with an Extension

Existing type can be adopted and conformed to a new protocol by making use of extensions. New properties, methods and subscripts can be added to existing types with the help of extensions.

protocol AgeClasificationProtocol {
   var age: Int { get }
   func agetype() -> String
}
class Person {
   let firstname: String
   let lastname: String
   var age: Int
   
   init(firstname: String, lastname: String) {
      self.firstname = firstname
      self.lastname = lastname
      self.age = 10
   }
}

extension Person : AgeClasificationProtocol {
   func fullname() -> String {
      var c: String
      c = firstname + " " + lastname
      return c
   }
   func agetype() -> String {
      switch age {
         case 0...2:
            return "Baby"
         case 2...12:
            return "Child"
         case 13...19:
            return "Teenager"
         case let x where x > 65:
            return "Elderly"
         default:
            return "Normal"
      }
   }
}

Protocol Inheritance

Swift 4 allows protocols to inherit properties from its defined properties. It is similar to that of class inheritance, but with the choice of listing multiple inherited protocols separated by commas.

Live Demo
protocol classa {
   var no1: Int { get set }
   func calc(sum: Int)
}
protocol result {
   func print(target: classa)
}
class student2: result {
   func print(target: classa) {
      target.calc(sum: 1)
   }
}
class classb: result {
   func print(target: classa) {
      target.calc(sum: 5)
   }
}

class student: classa {
   var no1: Int = 10
   
   func calc(sum: Int) {
      no1 -= sum
      print("Student attempted \(sum) times to pass")
         
      if no1 <= 0 {
         print("Student is absent for exam")
      }
   }
}

class Player {
   var stmark: result!

   init(stmark: result) {
      self.stmark = stmark
   }
   func print(target: classa) {
      stmark.print(target: target)
   }
}

var marks = Player(stmark: student2())
var marksec = student()

marks.print(target: marksec)
marks.print(target: marksec)
marks.print(target: marksec)
marks.stmark = classb()
marks.print(target: marksec)
marks.print(target: marksec)
marks.print(target: marksec)

When we run the above program using playground, we get the following result −

Student attempted 1 times to pass
Student attempted 1 times to pass
Student attempted 1 times to pass
Student attempted 5 times to pass
Student attempted 5 times to pass
Student is absent for exam
Student attempted 5 times to pass
Student is absent for exam

Class Only Protocols

When protocols are defined and the user wants to define protocol with classes it should be added by defining class first followed by protocol's inheritance list.

protocol tcpprotocol {
   init(no1: Int)
}
class mainClass {
   var no1: Int        // local storage
   init(no1: Int) {
      self.no1 = no1  // initialization
   }
}
class subClass: mainClass, tcpprotocol {
   var no2: Int
   init(no1: Int, no2 : Int) {
      self.no2 = no2
      super.init(no1:no1)
   }
   
   // Requires only one parameter for convenient method
   required override convenience init(no1: Int) {
      self.init(no1:no1, no2:0)
   }
}

let res = mainClass(no1: 20)
let print = subClass(no1: 30, no2: 50)

print("res is: \(res.no1)")
print("res is: \(print.no1)")
print("res is: \(print.no2)")

When we run the above program using playground, we get the following result −

res is: 20
res is: 30
res is: 50

Protocol Composition

Swift 4 allows multiple protocols to be called at once with the help of protocol composition.

Syntax

protocol<SomeProtocol, AnotherProtocol>

Example

Live Demo
protocol stname {
   var name: String { get }
}
protocol stage {
   var age: Int { get }
}
struct Person: stname, stage {
   var name: String
   var age: Int
}
func print(celebrator: stname & stage) {
   print("\(celebrator.name) is \(celebrator.age) years old")
}
let studname = Person(name: "Priya", age: 21)
print(studname)

let stud = Person(name: "Rehan", age: 29)
print(stud)

let student = Person(name: "Roshan", age: 19)
print(student)

When we run the above program using playground, we get the following result −

Person(name: "Priya", age: 21)
Person(name: "Rehan", age: 29)
Person(name: "Roshan", age: 19)

Checking for Protocol Conformance

Protocol conformance is tested by 'is' and 'as' operators similar to that of type casting.

  • The is operator returns true if an instance conforms to protocol standard and returns false if it fails.

  • The as? version of the downcast operator returns an optional value of the protocol's type, and this value is nil if the instance does not conform to that protocol.

  • The as version of the downcast operator forces the downcast to the protocol type and triggers a runtime error if the downcast does not succeed.

import Foundation

@objc protocol rectangle {
   var area: Double { get }
}
@objc class Circle: rectangle {
   let pi = 3.1415927
   var radius: Double
   var area: Double { return pi * radius * radius }
   init(radius: Double) { self.radius = radius }
}
@objc class result: rectangle {
   var area: Double
   init(area: Double) { self.area = area }
}
class sides {
   var rectsides: Int
   init(rectsides: Int) { self.rectsides = rectsides }
}
let objects: [AnyObject] = [Circle(radius: 2.0),result(area:198),sides(rectsides: 4)]

for object in objects {
   if let objectWithArea = object as? rectangle {
      print("Area is \(objectWithArea.area)")
   } else {
      print("Rectangle area is not defined")
   }
}

When we run the above program using playground, we get the following result −

Area is 12.5663708
Area is 198.0
Rectangle area is not defined


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