# SQL - LOG10() Function

The SQL LOG10() Is a mathematical function that is used in the SQL to retrieve the natural logarithm of a specified number to the base-10.

### Syntax

Following is the syntax of the SQL LOG10() function −

```LOG10(X);
```

### Parameters

• X − is the numeric value required to calculate the natural logarithm of base 10.

### Syntax

Following is the syntax to use the LOG10() in the SQL table −

```SELECT column_name, LOG10(X) AS alias_name From table_name;
```

In the above SQL query, we can pass the column name from the table in which we want to perform the LOG10() function.

### Example

In the following example, we are calculating of log(10) to the base 10. It returns 1.

```SELECT LOG10(10) AS 'log10';
```

### Output

Following is the output of the above −

```+-------+
| log10 |
+-------+
|     1 |
+-------+
```

### Example

In the following example, we are passing 0 and a negative value to the LOG10() function if the value passed is 0 and a negative. Log10 will return a value null. In MySQL, it gives an error in the SQL.

Following is the query −

```SELECT lOG10(0) AS 'LOG(0)', LOG10(-2) AS 'LOG(-2)';
```

### Output

On execution of the above SQL query, we get the error because the LOG10() function in SQL returns an error if the argument is 0 or a negative value.

```An invalid floating point operation occurred.
```

### Example

In the following example, we are finding the value of log10(1) using the SQL Log10() function.

```SELECT LOG10(1) AS log1;
```

### Output

When we execute the above SQL query, we get 0 because log1 always returns 0.

```+------+
| log1 |
+------+
|    0 |
+------+
```

### Example

In the following example, we are passing the floating-point number and also passing the string-type number in the SQL log10() function.

```SELECT lOG10('4') AS log4, LOG10(255.255) AS log_Of_Floatvalue;
```

### Output

Following is the output of the above SQL query −

```+--------------------+-------------------+
| log4               | log_Of_Floatvalue |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|  0.602059991327962 |  2.40697425791327 |
+--------------------+-------------------+
```

### Example

In the following example, we are using the emp_tbl to fetch the ID and name and perform the LOG10(). Here, we are calculating the LOG10 value of the ID of the emp_tbl table.

Let’s create a table named emp_tbl −

```Create table emp_tbl (ID INT NOT NULL, NAME VARCHAR(20), ACCOUNT_BL NUMERIC);
```

Let’s insert n data into table &mins;

```insert into emp_tbl values(1, 'Raja', 1200);
insert into emp_tbl values(2, 'Vivek', 1500);
insert into emp_tbl values(3, 'Roja', -1500);
insert into emp_tbl values(4, 'Lukha', -1700);
insert into emp_tbl values(5, 'Sonal', 1800);
```

Let’s fetch the table details.

```SELECT * FROM emp_tbl;
```

Following is the emp_tbl table −

```+----+-------+------------+
| ID | NAME  | ACCOUNT_BL |
+----+-------+------------+
|  1 | Raja  |       1200 |
|  2 | Vivek |       1500 |
|  3 | Roja  |      -1500 |
|  4 | Lukha |      -1700 |
|  5 | Sonal |       1800 |
+----+-------+------------+
```

Following is the query to Fetch the Name, ID and calculate the LOG10() of the ID −

```SELECT
NAME, ID, LOG10(ID) log_Of_ID
from emp_tbl;
```

### Output

Following is the output of the above SQL query −

```+-------+----+---------------------+
| NAME  | ID | log_Of_ID           |
+-------+----+---------------------+
| Raja  |  1 |                   0 |
| Vivek |  2 |  0.3010299956639812 |
| Roja  |  3 | 0.47712125471966244 |
| Lukha |  4 |  0.6020599913279624 |
| Sonal |  5 |  0.6989700043360189 |
+-------+----+---------------------+
```
sql-numeric-functions.htm
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