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Rise of Fascism in Italy & Nazism in Germany
Fascism was based on violence and brutality. Mussolini's goal was to rebuild the ancient Roman Empire. As part of this, he appropriated some old Roman administration emblems. Mussolini used Fascist policies to repress his opponents. His aggressive foreign policy led to his conquest of states such as Ethiopia and Albania. Hitler instilled in the Germans a sense of vengeance toward the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler pursued an aggressive foreign policy, capitalizing on the Germans' sense of vengeance. Later, Germany joined forces with Italy and Japan. Other countries were opposed. Ultimately, this led to the outbreak of another world war.
The rise of Italian Fascism
The socialist-leaning blacksmith's son from 1883, Benito Mussolini, became the movement's founder, heart, and leader, eventually founding the Fascist party. The events and situations in Italy during and immediately after the First World War were quite favourable to Benito Mussolini's ascent to power. Fascists believed they were powerful enough to try a violent takeover of the government. The administration decided to impose martial law in the meantime. King Victor Emmanuel III, however, declined to sign the document. Mussolini received dictatorial authority from the Parliament, ushering in a Fascist dictatorship in Italy. On October 29, 1922, the King asked Mussolini to establish the administration.
Factors contributing to the Emergence of Fascism
Treaty of Versailles − The Italians were dissatisfied with the Versailles Peace Treaty, they didn’t get a share in German foreign territories.
Nationalism and Socialism − The loss of the victory's rewards infuriated several Italians. The forces of socialism and nationalism seemed to be at odds until Mussolini entered the scene and said he could bring them together.
The emergence of communism − According to Mussolini, Italy's post-war labour unrest and dissatisfaction were pushing the nation toward communism, and only his party, the Fascisti, could protect society from the threat of communism.
Italian socio-economic circumstances − In 1919 natural resources were in short supply and the economy had collapsed as a result of the conflict.
Nazi and fascist regime
Description-Portraits of Hitler and Mussolini with symbols of the Nazi and fascist regime
Impact of Fascism
To control the Parliament, Mussolini modified the legislation. Except for his own, he disbanded all political parties. Fascists started terrorizing rivals. Mussolini attempted to make Italy a global power by progressively overhauling the previous administration's feeble foreign policy. Italy must expand its territory due to its growing population and the requirement for raw materials for industrial growth. In 1937, Mussolini consented to join the German and Japanese Anti-Communist Pact. Thus, the Berlin-Tokyo-Rome Axis was established. Under the Fascist government, Italy's industry and agriculture achieved significant advancements.
The rise of Nazism in Germany
Hitler was born in Austria in 1889 and grew up in poverty. He enlisted in the army when during the First World War. Later he was frightened by the German loss and enraged by the Versailles Treaty. He joined a little organization named the German Workers' Party in 1919. Later, he gained control of the group and changed its name to the National Socialist German Workers' Party. The Nazi Party was the name given to this group. Nazism rose to prominence as a widespread movement during the Great Depression.
Causes of the rise of Nazism
Germany was defeated spiritually and monetarily by the war and the Peace Agreement.
France's ongoing hostility, the disputes over the Ruhr, the occupation of the Rhineland, and the Saar, and the required reparations all contributed to this.
Many Germans saw the Republic's acceptance of unjust limitations, the policy of reconciliation, and unwillingness to assert itself more forcefully in international affairs to be deeply offensive.
Nazi propaganda techniques, oratory, posters, flags, songs, uniforms, ceremonies, rituals, discipline, historical traditions, and ideologies of German racial supremacy were used to profit from these circumstances.
Impact of Nazism
Germany's citizens were directly and severely impacted by Nazi authority, while Europe and the rest of the globe were indirectly affected but paralysed.
After seizing absolute control both inside and outside his party, Hitler decided to eliminate all resistance. Germany under Hitler became a totalitarian state.
The core of the Nazi philosophy was nihilism, eroding the moral character of the individual. It resulted in the persecution of Jews.
Hitler took credit for the “economic miracle” that had occurred when he came to power in 1934, and the economy had improved.
Difference between Nazism and Fascism
|Nazism made racism a central theme. A state led by people of a certain racial group this example, the “Aryan” character be considered superior.||To establish an “Organic State,” fascism promotes corporatizing every sector of society.|
|The government was viewed by Nazism as a tool for maintaining and developing the master race.||Fascism viewed the state as a means of advancing nationalism.|
|Nazism deliberately sought to eliminate class-based society because it was considered an impediment to racial unity.||Fascism appreciated the class system and kept it in place to create a better social order.|
|Famous Nazis include Adolf Hitler and Joseph Mengele.||Prominent fascist figures were Benito Mussolini and Oswald Mosley.|
The development of fascism and Nazism both had terrible effects that lasted for a while. During the interwar era, both first appeared on the global scene. Both swept all of Europe under the rug, turning to authoritarianism in the process, sparking the Second World War. They revered the nation, considering it to have a higher purpose than the welfare of an individual and to be a living being. The obligations that people have to the country are more significant than their rights. The characteristics of fascism and Nazism were strong and militaristic nationalism, readiness for war for territorial expansion, an ingrained conviction in racism and the theory of racial superiority, as well as hatred and destruction.
Q1. When did fascism begin to decline?
Ans. The main fascist parties in Europe were disbanded at the end of World War II, and in certain nations, they were outlawed.
Q2. Who was Hitler's main rival in the presidential elections?
Ans. Hitler ran against Paul von Hindenburg in the presidential elections.
Q3. Who were the Axis forces in World War II?
Ans. The coalition formed by Germany, Italy, and Japan to combat the Allied Powers in World War II was known as Axis forces.Impact of Fascism
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