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Recombinant DNA Technology
Relevant genetic sources are important in producing artificial DNA. This type of technology is regarded as the recombination procedure. The term genetic engineering is associated with this. Prof. Dale Kiser who first proposed the idea of this technology. In this technology, the joined DNA is inserted into the most appropriate host organism. Integration of genes within vectors is also related to this.
What is Recombinant DNA Technology?
The technological activity used in combining multiple DNA is regarded as recombinant DNA technology. The discovery of restriction enzymes is very important and impactful part of this technological advancement. In this process, the desired DNA is inserted into the host body and significant changes are expected. In this process, the genes are selected and in introducing the recombination of DNA, the host body is to produce a proper platform and specifications.
Figure 1: Presentation of recombinant DNA technology
The available foreign fragment in this process is associated with the incorporation of the genome. In developing a proper recombinant DNA, a series of significant sequential steps are important.
Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
In performing proper recombination of DNA with technological aspects, effective enzymes are useful. The first enzyme is the restriction enzyme. The main action of this enzyme is to help DNA to cut. The next and second one is known as polymerases. In synthesizing and in binding the ligases, the second enzyme is the most applicable one. The restriction enzyme can be divided into two significant parts, namely endonuclease and exonuclease.
Figure 2: Activity of nucleus
In the endonuclease, the DNA is found to be cut in the middle portion. In exonuclease, the DNA is divided into side parts. The length of the DNA can be scanned by endonucleases. Vectors are regarded as the carrier of genes to the host organisms. Host organisms are often considered another important tool, associated with this technological process.
Steps of Recombinant DNA Technology
There are main five steps of the process in recombining DNA.
Step 1: The very first stage is known as the isolation process of significant genetic material. The desired DNA is found to be isolated at this stage.
Step 2: In this step, the gene is cut in which the restriction enzymes play the most significant role. This whole process is named restriction enzyme digestion.
Step 3: In this step, amplification of gene is associated. Only one copy of DNA is found to enlarge into some more copies in the PCR process.
Figure 3: Presentation of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
Step 4: This step is important as ligation of all available DNA molecules is associated with this. Two important pieces, fragments of DNA and the associated vectors are important.
Step 5: This is the final stage of this process. In this part, the recombination of DNA is introduced into the body of a host. All the transformed genes are brought forward to the recombinant gene.
A clone is defined as a bunch of some active and individual cells whose ancestor cells are identical in nature. In producing multiple copies of any particular genes, DNA cloning is very much applicable. At a certain time, a single particle of DNA is found to enter any specific molecule of DNA. The carriers of DNA clones are associated with this process. Some most effective vectors are namely yeast cells, viruses, and plasmids.
Application of DNA Cloning
In performing gene therapy, DNA cloning is useful.
In identifying and detecting any significant clone, this technological field is very much important.
The application of DNA cloning is found beneficial in increasing the productivity of crops.
This process is helpful and beneficial in producing hormones and also in generating some antibiotics and vitamins.
The Implication of Recombinant DNA Technology
The most important implication of this technology is found in the field of agriculture.
In producing insulin, this technology is applicable.
In preventing some major heredity diseases from spreading, the recombination of DNA technology is very important.
In the clinical diagnosis process of ELISA, this technology is very much applicable.
In most living organisms, the process of recombining DNA can be undertaken. Usage of E.coli restriction enzymes is integrally connected to this process. Some of the most important tools can be named as enzyme ligase, restriction enzyme, and host and vector. All of these tools play important role in completing the combination process. The associated steps in performing the implementation of DNA technology are also crucial and effective. Digestion of some restriction enzymes is also a very important part of this technological process. The amplification procedure of PCR is associated with this as well.
Q1. Which products are associated with the generation of recombinant DNA technology?
Ans. In generating recombinant DNA technology, some medical health-related concerns are very important. Implementing this technology is effective in maintaining growth hormone, recombination of insulin, generating hepatitis B vaccine, and some more.
Q2. What is the significance of recombinant DNA technology?
Ans. This technology is important as it helps in generating an ample amount of copies of genes. In inserting some foreign genes as well, the implementation of this gene is very important.
Q3. State two most important advantages and a disadvantage of recombinant DNA technology?
Ans. In improving health conditions and ensuring proper quality of food, this technological advancement is very important. The main disadvantage is that any personal information of an individual can be easily acquired without any consent.
Q4. Which safety issues can be a serious concern in relation to this technology?
Ans. In relation to gene pollution, the application of this technology is very important. In relation to the antibiotic-resistant microbes as well, this technology may present several difficulties.
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