Python Design Patterns - Facade


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Facade design pattern provides a unified interface to a set of interfaces in a subsystem. It defines a higher-level interface that any subsystem can use.

A facade class knows which subsystem is responsible for a request.

How to design a facade pattern?

Let us now see how to design a facade pattern.

class _IgnitionSystem(object):
   
   @staticmethod
   def produce_spark():
      return True

class _Engine(object):

   def __init__(self):
      self.revs_per_minute = 0

   def turnon(self):
      self.revs_per_minute = 2000
   
   def turnoff(self):
      self.revs_per_minute = 0

class _FuelTank(object):
   
   def __init__(self, level=30):
      self._level = level
   
   @property
   def level(self):
      return self._level
   
   @level.setter
	def level(self, level):
      self._level = level

class _DashBoardLight(object):

   def __init__(self, is_on=False):
      self._is_on = is_on

   def __str__(self):
      return self.__class__.__name__

   @property
   def is_on(self):
      return self._is_on
   
   @is_on.setter
   def is_on(self, status):
      self._is_on = status
   
   def status_check(self):
      if self._is_on:
         print("{}: ON".format(str(self)))
      else:
         print("{}: OFF".format(str(self)))

class _HandBrakeLight(_DashBoardLight):
   pass

class _FogLampLight(_DashBoardLight):
   pass

class _Dashboard(object):
   
   def __init__(self):
      self.lights = {"handbreak": _HandBrakeLight(), "fog": _FogLampLight()}
   
   def show(self):
	   for light in self.lights.values():
      light.status_check()

# Facade
class Car(object):
   
   def __init__(self):
      self.ignition_system = _IgnitionSystem()
      self.engine = _Engine()
      self.fuel_tank = _FuelTank()
      self.dashboard = _Dashboard()
   
   @property
   def km_per_litre(self):
      return 17.0
   
   def consume_fuel(self, km):
      litres = min(self.fuel_tank.level, km / self.km_per_litre)
      self.fuel_tank.level -= litres
   
   def start(self):
      print("\nStarting...")
      self.dashboard.show()
      if self.ignition_system.produce_spark():
         self.engine.turnon()
      else:
         print("Can't start. Faulty ignition system")
   
   def has_enough_fuel(self, km, km_per_litre):
      litres_needed = km / km_per_litre
      if self.fuel_tank.level > litres_needed:
         return True
      else:
         return False
	   
      def drive(self, km = 100):
         print("\n")
         if self.engine.revs_per_minute > 0:
            while self.has_enough_fuel(km, self.km_per_litre):
               self.consume_fuel(km)
               print("Drove {}km".format(km))
               print("{:.2f}l of fuel still left".format(self.fuel_tank.level))
         else:
            print("Can't drive. The Engine is turned off!")
         
         def park(self):
            print("\nParking...")
            self.dashboard.lights["handbreak"].is_on = True
            self.dashboard.show()
            self.engine.turnoff()
         
         def switch_fog_lights(self, status):
            print("\nSwitching {} fog lights...".format(status))
            boolean = True if status == "ON" else False
            self.dashboard.lights["fog"].is_on = boolean
            self.dashboard.show()
         
         def fill_up_tank(self):
            print("\nFuel tank filled up!")
            self.fuel_tank.level = 100
				
# the main function is the Client
def main():
   car = Car()
   car.start()
   car.drive()
   car.switch_fog_lights("ON")
   car.switch_fog_lights("OFF")
	car.park()
   car.fill_up_tank()
   car.drive()
   car.start()
   car.drive()

if __name__ == "__main__":
   main()

Output

The above program generates the following output −

Facade Pattern

Explanation

This program is designed with a scenario. It is that of starting the engine of a car or any driving vehicle. If you observe the code, it includes the associated functions to drive, to park and to consume fuel as well.



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