Python Design Patterns - Builder


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Builder Pattern is a unique design pattern which helps in building complex object using simple objects and uses an algorithmic approach. This design pattern comes under the category of creational pattern. In this design pattern, a builder class builds the final object in step-by-step procedure. This builder is independent of other objects.

Advantages of Builder Pattern

  • It provides clear separation and a unique layer between construction and representation of a specified object created by class.

  • It provides better control over construction process of the pattern created.

  • It gives the perfect scenario to change the internal representation of objects.

How to implement builder pattern?

In this section, we will learn how to implement the builder pattern.

class Director:
   __builder = None
   
   def setBuilder(self, builder):
      self.__builder = builder
   
   def getCar(self):
      car = Car()
      
      # First goes the body
      body = self.__builder.getBody()
      car.setBody(body)
      
      # Then engine
      engine = self.__builder.getEngine()
      car.setEngine(engine)
      
      # And four wheels
      i = 0
      while i < 4:
         wheel = self.__builder.getWheel()
			car.attachWheel(wheel)
         i += 1
      return car

# The whole product
class Car:
   def __init__(self):
      self.__wheels = list()
      self.__engine = None
      self.__body = None

   def setBody(self, body):
      self.__body = body

   def attachWheel(self, wheel):
      self.__wheels.append(wheel)

   def setEngine(self, engine):
      self.__engine = engine

   def specification(self):
      print "body: %s" % self.__body.shape
      print "engine horsepower: %d" % self.__engine.horsepower
      print "tire size: %d\'" % self.__wheels[0].size

class Builder:
      def getWheel(self): pass
      def getEngine(self): pass
      def getBody(self): pass

class JeepBuilder(Builder):
   
   def getWheel(self):
      wheel = Wheel()
      wheel.size = 22
      return wheel
   
   def getEngine(self):
      engine = Engine()
      engine.horsepower = 400
      return engine
   
   def getBody(self):
      body = Body()
      body.shape = "SUV"
      return body

# Car parts
class Wheel:
   size = None

class Engine:
   horsepower = None

class Body:
   shape = None

def main():
   jeepBuilder = JeepBuilder() # initializing the class
   
   director = Director()
   
   # Build Jeep
   print "Jeep"
   director.setBuilder(jeepBuilder)
   jeep = director.getCar()
   jeep.specification()
   print ""

if __name__ == "__main__":
   main()

Output

The above program generates the following output −

Builder Pattern

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