PHP Class Abstraction

PHPServer Side ProgrammingProgramming

Introduction

In object oriented programming, an abstract class is the one that can be instantiated, i.e. it is not possible to declare object of such class. PHP supports concept of abstarct class since version 5.0

A class defined with abstract keyword becomes an abstract class. Further, any class which contains at least one abstract method is also considered abstract.

Syntax

<?php
class testclass{
   //
}
?>

If we try to create an object oof this class, PHP parser throws error as follows −

$a=new testclass();
PHP Fatal error: Uncaught Error: Cannot instantiate abstract class testclass

abstract method

Abstract method only declares its signature i.e. its visibility, arguments and return type with type hints and donot have any functionality. A class that inherits such an abstract class must override (provide definition) all abstract methods. Corresponding method in child class must carry same signature as in parent class. If child class doesn't fulfil this condition, PHP parser throws exception. A class that extends an abstract class can now be instantiated, hence it is called concrete class

In following example, parent class has two abstract methods, only one of which is redefined in child class. This results in error as follows −

Example

 Live Demo

<?php
abstract class testclass{
   abstract function test1();
   abstract function hello();
}
class myclass extends testclass{
   function test1(){
      echo "Overrides parent test method";
   }
}
$a=new myclass();
?>

Output

Following is the error message

PHP Fatal error: Class myclass contains 1 abstract method and must therefore be declared abstract or implement the remaining methods (testclass::hello)

Abstract method with arguments

When abstract method is defined with arguments, it must be overridden in child class with same number of arguments

In following example, abstract method in parent class has two arguments. Child class also defines same function with two arguments

Example

 Live Demo

<?php
abstract class testclass{
   abstract function hello($name, $age);
}
class myclass extends testclass{
   function hello($name, $age){
      echo "My name is $name and my age is $age";
   }
}
$a=new myclass();
$a->hello("Ravi",20);
?>

Output

This will produce following output −

My name is Ravi and my age is 20
raja
Published on 18-Sep-2020 09:40:34
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