(a) What is meant by water pollution? What are the different ways in which water gets polluted?
(b) State the harmful effects of water pollution.

(a) Harmful substances like sewage, toxic materials, silt etc., when get mixed with water, cause water pollution. The pollutants which cause water pollution are the chemical waste from industries, sewage, silt, agricultural chemicals and garbage thrown into the water.
Water gets polluted in the following ways:
  • Water can be contaminated by human waste or sewage.
  • Industries such as oil refineries, paper factories, textile and sugar mills and chemical factories discharge harmful chemicals into rivers and streams. These chemicals include arsenic, lead and fluoride.
(b) Pollution is not a distant phenomenon anymore. It is affecting the quality of our day-to-day lives. Following are harmful effects of water pollution:
  • The chemicals such as arsenic, lead and fluorides discharged by the industries are very toxic to plants and animals.
  • The hot water released by certain industries raises the temperature of the water body. It adversely affects the plants and animals living in it.

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