The contamination of water bodies like lakes, rivers, ground water or oceans is termed water pollution. The main cause of this pollution is the discharge of harmful substances into water bodies without being treated. Water is the basic and most important element of life. Hence we must protect it from pollution.
Water pollution is caused by many factors. Human or animal wastes, Chemicals released from factories, pesticides and other chemicals used in agriculture, oil spills, wastage from factories directed to water tanks etc., Water pollution has become a serious global problem as will cause many diseases and even deaths.
We can control water pollution in the following ways:
Administration of water contamination control ought to be in the hands of the government.
Scientific procedures have to be adopted for ecological control of catchment territories of rivers, lakes or streams.
Industries should release the used water into tanks or other water bodies only after removing the hazardous pollutants from the used water.
Forests control contamination as they act as common ventilation systems. Trees can diminish sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide pollutants and henceforth more trees are ought to be planted.
Awareness must be spread regarding the effects of water contamination utilizing the media.
Laws and practices must be set up to anticipate water contamination and these laws must be adapted occasionally based on the requirements.
Research in Health engineering must be funded and encouraged.
Sanitation system must be developed. The advantages of cleanliness should be explained to both the urban and rural areas. Proper drainage systems must be installed.
Major towns and cities have sewage treatment plants. These plants separate the undissolved particles and chemicals. Chemical treatment is additionally given to isolating undesirable dissolved chemicals. The treated water is either permitted to go into the reservoirs or declined in houses. This is a very effective way to control water pollution.
Ponds, lakes, and wells which will be used by humans meant for human use should be routinely cleaned and treated, so that it remains fit for human use. It is an essential step that should not be avoided. An arrangement of standard testing of lakes can be done periodically to guarantee the purity of the water.
Self-cleanliness must be kept up and drinking water should not be polluted. Drinking water must be kept covered in a neat place. We should not put our hands into the drinking water holders.
Treatment of drainage water is also very important to control water pollution. In cities, a huge amount of water is put into drains every day which has harmful pollutants like house hold detergents and dish washing soaps. If this water goes to reservoirs before treatment that will contaminate the ground water as well as the water in the reservoir. The water that flows through the city drainage system should be properly treated and harmful pollutants have to be removed before they are introduced into reservoirs.