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(a) Classify the following as homologous or analogous pairs :(i) Broccoli and Cabbage(ii) Ginger and Raddish(iii) Forelimbs of birds and lizard(iv) Wings of a bat and Wings of a bird(b) State the main feature that categorizes a given pair of organs as homologous or analogous.
(a) (i) Broccoli and Cabbage are homologous in nature as they belong to the same family indicating a common origin.
(ii) Ginger and Raddish are analogous in nature as they perform a similar function of storing their food in the form of modified root, but they have a different source of origin.
(iii) Forelimbs of birds and lizards are homologous in nature as they have a common origin but different functions.
(iv) Wings of a bat and Wings of a bird are analogous organs as they perform similar functions of flying but they have a different source of origin.
(b) The main feature that categorizes a given pair of organs as homologous or analogous are their basic structure, source of origin and their performed function.
|Homologous organs||Analogous organs|
|(i) These organs have the same basic structure.||(i) These organs are different in structure.|
|(ii) These organs perform different functions.||(ii) These organs perform similar functions.|
|(iii) These organs show divergent evolution.||(iii) They show convergent evolution.|
|(iv) Example: The bones in the human arms and bones in the front flipper of a whale have the same origin and different function.||(iv) Example: The wings of birds and wings of butterflies have different origin and the same function.|
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