Motivation can be described as the internal force that impacts the direction, intensity, and endurance of a person’s voluntary choice of behavior. It consists of −
Direction − focused by goals.
Intensity − bulk of effort allocated.
Persistence − amount of time taken for the effort to be exerted.
Example − A team leader encourages team members to work efficiently.
Motivation is an internal feeling, that is, it defines the psychological state of a person. It is a continuous process and we should make sure that it is not disturbed. A person should be encouraged completely.
Motivation consists of three interacting and dependent elements −
Needs − The requirements or deficiency which is created whenever there is physiological imbalance.
Drives − The various camps or events organized to motivate the employees and give them new opportunities.
Incentives − Employees need to be rewarded for their nice work in order to keep them encouraged.
We need to motivate employees because of the following reasons −
This theory was produced in order to answer the question “What motivates an individual”. Every second need comes to force when the first need is satisfied completely. Maslow explained the hierarchy of needs by grouping them into two: deficiency needs and growth needs.
Every individual needs to take care of the basic requirements required to sustain. These requirements include food to eat, clothing to wear and shelter to live in. These necessities are relatively independent of each other but are finite.
Everybody wants to stay in a protected environment with minimal danger so that they can have a peaceful life. Safety needs basically includes protection from physiological danger like accident and having economic security like bank accounts, health insurance
In an enterprise, it includes job security, salary increment, etc. The managerial practice to satisfy this involves offering pension scheme, provident fund, gratuity etc.
We have all heard that man is a social animal, we want to be there with those people where we are loved and we are accepted as we are; nobody wants to be judged. This is a common requirement every human desires.
This theory helps managers to think about encouraging their employees by identifying employee needs. In short, it presents motivation as constantly changing force, expressing itself to the constant need for fulfilment of new and higher levels of needs.
Esteem means the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People often involve in a profession or hobby to gain recognition, earn fame and respect. According to Maslow, the needs of humans have strict guidelines - the hierarchies rather than being sharply separated, are interrelated. This means that esteem and the consequent levels are not strictly separated but are closely related.
Self-actualization means realizing one’s full potential. Maslow describes this as a desire to complete everything that one can, to become the most that one can be.