Organizational Development is a field of research, theory, as well as practice devoted to expanding the knowledge and effectiveness of how people accomplish successful organizational change and performance.
Organizational development is not an overnight transformation that can be done in an organization, rather it is a gradual process that has to be executed systematically and by taking care of the external environment.
Companies adopt organizational development technique to modify the behavior of people who are resisting change. It is a program to bring a change in the values, norms, attitudes, perception, and behavior of people and improve the quality of inter-personal relations. Some of the major organizational development techniques are −
Now let us have a look at all these techniques.
Here sensitivity refers to the psychological aspect of human mind that has to be shaped to act as expected by the group. In this technique, one’s own weakness is exposed and members understand how others react towards them. Stress is on group dynamics and tackling inter-relationship disputes.
The idea is to improve the behavior of people in order to maintain smooth inter-personal relationship without any power or influence. Members are motivated to have an open, heart-to-heart talk to develop mature relationship. Sensitivity training borders on psychotherapy where the emotions as well as body language are considered.
In this technique, the discrepancies among a group are weeded out using questionnaires, which identify the difference in perception amongst the same working family, group or department. The collected data is then tabulated and distributed for further deliberations. This acts as the basis for further discussions and the discrepancies if any can be sorted out by open discussions with all concerned, defending and opposing till a consensus is reached. This technique mainly focuses on ideas and not on persons who put up those ideas.
In this technique, a firm may either seek the support of experts from within the firm or from outside. The firm must check that process consultation is done through an external expert with the needed support provided by the authorities from within the organization.
In this technique, attempts are made at the group or inter-group level. The main objective is to improve co-ordination thereby improving the performance as a group. This can be done by goal setting, development of inter-personal relations, role analysis to identify roles and responsibilities and team process analysis.
Inter group development technique attempts to change the perceptions of groups about themselves or about other groups. This can be done by organizing independent group meeting, developing a list consisting of perception of itself, views about other departments and how others view them, trying to understand and resolve the actual cause of conflicts, or sub grouping the groups to remove difference in perceptions and impressions that groups have about each other.