Nephron Function Renal Tubules


Nephron is retrieved from the Greek word “nephros”, which signifies the kidney. A tiny network in the blood vessels known as glomerulus, is the consisting part of the nephron in the human body. It's reliable to conduct the malfunctions of the kidneys. From different organs which are renal corpuscles and renal tubules, nephrons get formed inside the body, especially in the kidney. There are around millions of nephrons available in the human kidney.

What is Nephron?

Nephron is an essential unit of the kidney which conducts the fundamentals and different malfunctions based on the structure of the human body. In the human body, nephrons are accountable for their actions to remove waste and undesirable fluids from the human body. The nephron is present in the kidney by the collaboration of two organs that are also present in the kidney, they are renal corpuscles and renal tubules.

Figure 1: Nephron placement

The elementary form of nephron is encountered in the kidneys or pronephros of primal fishes, nymphs of amphibians, and also in embryos of more heightened vertebrates. The nephrons found in the kidneys of amphibians and most fish, in the roots of the higher vertebrates disagree slightly in configuration. The progressive forms of nephrons transpire in the adult kidneys which are termed the metanephros, It exists in land vertebrates such as birds, mammals, and reptiles.

Why the presence of Nephrons is Vital in the Human Body?

The nephron is the network that constructs urine during the process of excretion of waste. It is accomplished in the method of reducing the amount of waste available in the body and, extra and unwanted substances available in the blood by the process of filtering. Without the proper functionality of the nephron, kidney will not produce urine and it will lead to swelling in the human body as the filtering process stops.

The bladder in the human body can store urine until it gets released through the process of urination. As urine gets released from the body, it indicates that the kidney is functioning properly while cleaning the blood. Through the purification of blood, the human body gets healthy.

Structure of Nephron

The mammalian nephron is a long tube-like structure, its length ranging from 35–55 mm long. At the endpoint, the tube is sealed, folded and extended, into a two-walled, cuplike design dubbed the Bowman’s capsule or renal corpuscular capsule, which possesses a collection of infinitesimal blood rowboats called the glomerulus. This capsule and glomerulus together include the renal corpuscle.

Figure 2: Structure of Nephron

Primarily, the structure is divided into two separate parts:

  • Renal Tubule: The renal tubule presents in kidney is a long and convoluted structure that arises from the glomerulus. It is divided into three domains, based on its functions.

  • Renal Corpuscle: It is used as filtration unit in kidney which refers to regular malfunction of the kidney.

Information about Renal Tubules

Renal tubules in human kidneys consist of a cup and the long tubular parts. The function of the renal tubules helps in absorbing glucose, water, and sodium block. In addition to this, the first part is known as proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). Due to its closeness to the glomerulus; it persists in the renal cortex. The second part of renal tubules is Henle, or nephritic loop and it forms a loop that can go through the renal medulla.

Renal Tubules are divided into two parts in the kidney which reflects in the structure. The followings are the detailed particles of the kidney.

  • Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT): The blood carried via the renal artery is operated on for filtration purposes. PCT is the region of renal tubule where reabsorption of essential substances like glucose, proteins, amino acids, a significant part of electrolytes and water takes place. It also secretes extended elements like ammonia, hydrogen, and potassium.

  • Henle’s loop: It is known as the ascending and descending limb. The descending limb is absorbent to water; however, the impermeable to an electrolyte, while the ascending limb is permeable to electrolytes; however, it is impermeable to water.

Function of Nephron

Figure 3: Functions of Nephron

The primary functions of the nephron are as follows:

  • It removes all undesired substances including solid waste from the human body.

  • It filters blood and removes the toxic substances from it.

  • It converts the excessive amount of water into urine.


The procedure of excretion in the human body starts taking place through the lungs, skin, liver, kidneys and these are the main organs of the human excretory technique. They are bean-shaped organs. Any kind of issue in the Nephron can lead to the situation of kidney failure. If the nephron fails to filter the toxic items, then it will lead to the construction of different diseases in the human body.


Q1. Why do kidneys fail?

Ans. Different diseases and weak immune systems cannot handle the attacks on kidneys and nephrons. Due to the frequent use of different drugs, nephrons can get damaged and lead to kidney failure.

Q2. What is the nephron in the kidney?

Ans. The nephron is the unit that is available in kidney and is responsible for removing the waste substances in the human body.

Q3. What is the action that is taken by the nephrons?

Ans. Nephrons help in removing wastes and different toxic substances present in the blood like ammonia and urea. Thus, this filtering procedure keeps the essential elements in the body.

Updated on: 24-Jan-2023


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