Renal Calculi


Kidney stones or renal calculi can be caused by diet, obesity, and some other supplements, and medications. Kidney stone is a curable disease; however, it can create massive pain and uneasiness. Based on the size of the stone, one can have different symptoms. However, we always needs doctors' assistance to get rid of it and to reduce all kinds of risks and dangers that can be caused by kidney stones.

Kidney and Its Importance

Figure 1: Parts of the Kidney

Kidneys are the major parts of the urine system of the human body. It is located on either side of the spine and below the ribs. Every human body has two kidneys, which are bean-shaped organ that is slightly reddish and brown. Each of them is at least 4 to 5 inches in length.

The main function of the kidney is to purify or filter the blood. It also helps in removing all the waste material from the body in the form of urine and maintains the balance of body fluids. Not only that, it is essential for keeping the right level of electrolytes in the human body.

The filtering process of the kidney is done by around a million nephrons. If the kidney does not work properly, it can cause many problems. It is believed that it can be possible that a kidney is working only 10% but one may not feel anything. The body may not show any kind of symptoms.

What is Renal Calculi?

Figure 2: Kidney and Kidney Stones

The term renal calculi are also referred to as kidney stones. It can be defined as a major or minor-sized solid mass that is made of crystals, which can block the urinary tract. They are majorly formed with calcium and oxalate coalesce. They originated in the kidney and can exit through the urine.

The size of renal calculi may differ; it is capable of becoming as large as the size of the kidney or can be too small to notice. Some can feel severe pain in the abdomen or the lower back.

Types of Renal Calculi

Renal calculi or kidney stones can be majorly four types. They are-

  • Calcium stone is the most common type of kidney stone. It is made of calcium, oxalate, and some other things.

  • Uric Acid Stone can be detected if the urine is too acidic. This kind of kidney stone is formed with the help of uric acid. It can be a combination of uric acid and calcium.

  • Struvite Stone is formed due to some kind of infection in the urinary tract. The main cause of the infection can be bacteria, which then form ammonia in the urine. They are formed with the help of ammonium, phosphate, and magnesium.

  • Cystine stone is made of a natural chemical that is called cysteine. They can be produced in the body naturally. They are very rare kinds of kidney stones. It is caused because of cystine leakage in urine.

Symptoms of Renal Calculi

Some major signs or symptoms can indicate the presence of renal calculi in a human body. They are-

Figure 3: Symptoms and Causes of Renal Calculi

  • Major pain in the lower abdomen area

  • Changed colour of urine, it will become brown, red, and can be pink too.

  • Pain at the time of urination

  • Vomiting tendency and nausea

  • Blood discharge with the urine

  • Foul-smell from the urine

  • Sweating

Risk Factors

Figure 4: Renal Calculi

The main factor that increases the risk of kidney stones is the lack of fluid in the body, which means dehydration. If one person eats too much of egg, meat or chicken, it can lead to kidney stones.

High amount of vitamin D intake can higher the risk of kidney stones. Lower urinary citrate also increases the chance of kidney stones.

How to prevent Renal Calculi

Kidney stones or renal calculi can be prevented if one person can -

  • Drink sufficient water

  • Avoid soft drinks and sodium

  • Decrease the intake amount of vitamins and minerals

  • One must drink fluid and citric acid

Treatment for Renal Calculi

The kidney stone can be treated with the help of surgery and some medicines can help. It is a curable disease, and that is the reason one must take the assistance of doctors.

The best treatment for reducing kidney stones is allopurinol. It is the most used drug for this treatment.


The kidney removes every waste material from the body, however, when the quantity of the waste material is much more than the fluids, it starts sticking to the kidney and eventually gets converted into kidney stones. They can even move to another portion of the urinary tract. It is also called renal calculi.


Q1. Are renal calculi a curable disease?

Ans. The renal calculi, simply known as the kidney stone is majorly curable. It can be operated on with the help of surgery or can be treated with medicine; it depends on the seriousness of the condition.

Q2. What are the major types of kidney stones?

Ans. Kidney stones can be divided into four main types. They are- calcium oxalate stones, cystine stones, struvite stones, and uric acid stones.

Q3. What are the main treatments for kidney stones?

Ans. Kidney stone can be treated in three main steps. Drinking a lot of water can help stones to be dissolved or even it can prevent the chances of stones, Stones can cause slight discomfort and pain, which can be treated with pain killers. Medical therapy or medical assistance from doctors can help to dissolve the problem.

Q4. Which kind of food causes kidney stones?

Ans. To prevent kidney stones, one must need to avoid eating some foods in excess that can form the stones. They include beetroot, chocolate, spinach, tea, and most nuts.

Updated on: 13-Apr-2023


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