# How to Use & and && Operators in MATLAB?

In MATLAB, there are various types of operators used to perform different operations. Two such operators are "&" and "&&". The "&" and "&&" operators are the logical operators used to perform element wise logical AND operations. However, they are absolutely different from each other on the basis of their behavior.

Read this article to understand the basics of "&" and "&&" operators in MATLAB along with their applications in MATLAB programming.

## What is & Operator in MATLAB?

In MATLAB, the "&" operator is an element-wise operator used to perform logical AND operation between two arrays.

• If we use the "&" operator with scalar values instead of arrays, then its operation is similar to the logical AND operation in any high-level programming language.

• When we use the "&" operator with two arrays, it performs the logical AND operation between corresponding elements of the two arrays.

• The output of the "&" operator is true (1), if both the corresponding elements in the arrays are true (1). If any of the element is false (0), the output of the "&" operator will be false (0).

### Example 1

Let us understand the use of "&" operator in MATLAB with the help of an example.

% MATLAB code to use & operator
% Create two sample arrays
A = [0 1 1];
B = [1 1 1];

% Use the & operator to perform logical AND operation
C = A & B;

% Display the result
disp('The element-wise logical AND of A and B:');
disp(C);


### Output

When you run this code, it will produce the following output −

The element-wise logical AND of A and B:
0   1   1


This is how we use the "&" operator in MATLAB programming. In MATLAB, this operator is mainly used to perform logical indexing and filtering operations.

## What is && Operator in MATLAB?

In MATLAB, the "&&" is another logical operator which is used to perform short-circuiting logical AND operation. The "&&" operator is also a logical AND operator, but it is different from "&" operator in its behavior.

• The "&" operator works on the input arrays element wise i.e., element by element. But, the "&&" operator work in short-circuiting manner.

• In simple words, the "&&" operator is useful for short-circuiting in control flow statements like in "while loops".

• Similar to the "&" operator, the output of the "&&" operator is true (1) if both operands are true (1). The output is false (0), if any of the operands is false (0).

• In MATLAB programming, the "&&" operator is used in situations where we deal with multiple conditions, and if we want to evaluate the subsequent conditions only if the earlier conditions are true.

It is also important to note that the "&&" operator cannot be used to perform element-wise logical AND operation.

### Example 2

Now, let us understand the use of "&&" operator in MATLAB with the help of an example.

% MATLAB code to use && operator
% Input two variables
A = 15;
B = 3;

% Use the && operator for short-circuiting AND operation
M = (A + B) < 10 && (A * B) < 10;
disp('The result for M is:');
disp(M);

% Use the && operator for short-circuiting AND operation
N = (A + B) > 10 && (A * B) > 10;
disp('The result for N is:');
disp(N);


### Output

In this example, the result for M is 0 which is false. Because the results of both conditions in the expression are false. The result for N is 1 which is true. This is because the results of both conditions in the expression are true.

The result for M is:
0
The result for N is:
1


This is how the "&&" operator is used to perform the short-circuiting logical AND operation in MATLAB.

From the above discussion, it is clear that the "&" and "&&" operators are used to perform logical AND operation in MATLAB programming. But they are different from each other in terms of their behavior.

Let us now discuss the key differences between & and && operators in MATLAB.

## Difference between & and && in MATLAB

The following table highlights all the key differences between & and && operators in MATLAB.

Parameter

& Operator

&& Operator

Type of Operation

The & operator is used to perform element-wise logical AND operation in MATLAB.

The && operator is used to perform the short-circuiting logical AND operation in MATLAB.

Working

The & operator works by comparing corresponding elements of arrays.

The && operator works by comparing two control flow statements.

Type of operands

The & operator can be used with both arrays and scalar vectors to perform their element wise AND operation.

The && operator is used with scalar values in control statements.

Application

The & operator is used to perform logical indexing and filtering operations in MATLAB.

The && operator is used to perform short-circuiting logical AND operation in control statements.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, the "&" and "&&" are two logical AND operators in MATLAB programming. However, they are different from each other in terms of their behavior. The "&" operator is an element-wise logical AND operator used to perform logical AND between two arrays. In contrast, the "&&" operator is used to perform short-circuiting logical AND operation between two or more conditional statements.

Updated on: 25-Oct-2023

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