HiveQL - Select-Where


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The Hive Query Language (HiveQL) is a query language for Hive to process and analyze structured data in a Metastore. This chapter explains how to use the SELECT statement with WHERE clause.

SELECT statement is used to retrieve the data from a table. WHERE clause works similar to a condition. It filters the data using the condition and gives you a finite result. The built-in operators and functions generate an expression, which fulfils the condition.

Syntax

Given below is the syntax of the SELECT query:

SELECT [ALL | DISTINCT] select_expr, select_expr, ... 
FROM table_reference 
[WHERE where_condition] 
[GROUP BY col_list] 
[HAVING having_condition] 
[CLUSTER BY col_list | [DISTRIBUTE BY col_list] [SORT BY col_list]] 
[LIMIT number];

Example

Let us take an example for SELECT…WHERE clause. Assume we have the employee table as given below, with fields named Id, Name, Salary, Designation, and Dept. Generate a query to retrieve the employee details who earn a salary of more than Rs 30000.

+------+--------------+-------------+-------------------+--------+
| ID   | Name         | Salary      | Designation       | Dept   |
+------+--------------+-------------+-------------------+--------+
|1201  | Gopal        | 45000       | Technical manager | TP     |
|1202  | Manisha      | 45000       | Proofreader       | PR     |
|1203  | Masthanvali  | 40000       | Technical writer  | TP     |
|1204  | Krian        | 40000       | Hr Admin          | HR     |
|1205  | Kranthi      | 30000       | Op Admin          | Admin  | 
+------+--------------+-------------+-------------------+--------+

The following query retrieves the employee details using the above scenario:

hive> SELECT * FROM employee WHERE salary>30000;

On successful execution of the query, you get to see the following response:

+------+--------------+-------------+-------------------+--------+
| ID   | Name         | Salary      | Designation       | Dept   |
+------+--------------+-------------+-------------------+--------+
|1201  | Gopal        | 45000       | Technical manager | TP     |
|1202  | Manisha      | 45000       | Proofreader       | PR     |
|1203  | Masthanvali  | 40000       | Technical writer  | TP     |
|1204  | Krian        | 40000       | Hr Admin          | HR     |
+------+--------------+-------------+-------------------+--------+

JDBC Program

The JDBC program to apply where clause for the given example is as follows.

import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.Statement;
import java.sql.DriverManager;

public class HiveQLWhere {
   private static String driverName = "org.apache.hadoop.hive.jdbc.HiveDriver";
   
   public static void main(String[] args) throws SQLException {
   
      // Register driver and create driver instance
      Class.forName(driverName);
      
      // get connection
      Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:hive://localhost:10000/userdb", "", "");
      
      // create statement
      Statement stmt = con.createStatement();
      
      // execute statement
      Resultset res = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT * FROM employee WHERE salary>30000;");
      
      System.out.println("Result:");
      System.out.println(" ID \t Name \t Salary \t Designation \t Dept ");
      
      while (res.next()) {
         System.out.println(res.getInt(1) + " " + res.getString(2) + " " + res.getDouble(3) + " " + res.getString(4) + " " + res.getString(5));
      }
      con.close();
   }
}

Save the program in a file named HiveQLWhere.java. Use the following commands to compile and execute this program.

$ javac HiveQLWhere.java
$ java HiveQLWhere

Output:

ID       Name           Salary      Designation          Dept
1201     Gopal          45000       Technical manager    TP
1202     Manisha        45000       Proofreader          PR
1203     Masthanvali    40000       Technical writer     TP
1204     Krian          40000       Hr Admin             HR


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