# Hive - Built-in Operators

This chapter explains the built-in operators of Hive. There are four types of operators in Hive:

• Relational Operators
• Arithmetic Operators
• Logical Operators
• Complex Operators

## Relational Operators

These operators are used to compare two operands. The following table describes the relational operators available in Hive:

Operator Operand Description
A = B all primitive types TRUE if expression A is equivalent to expression B otherwise FALSE.
A != B all primitive types TRUE if expression A is not equivalent to expression B otherwise FALSE.
A < B all primitive types TRUE if expression A is less than expression B otherwise FALSE.
A <= B all primitive types TRUE if expression A is less than or equal to expression B otherwise FALSE.
A > B all primitive types TRUE if expression A is greater than expression B otherwise FALSE.
A >= B all primitive types TRUE if expression A is greater than or equal to expression B otherwise FALSE.
A IS NULL all types TRUE if expression A evaluates to NULL otherwise FALSE.
A IS NOT NULL all types FALSE if expression A evaluates to NULL otherwise TRUE.
A LIKE B Strings TRUE if string pattern A matches to B otherwise FALSE.
A RLIKE B Strings NULL if A or B is NULL, TRUE if any substring of A matches the Java regular expression B , otherwise FALSE.
A REGEXP B Strings Same as RLIKE.

### Example

Let us assume the employee table is composed of fields named Id, Name, Salary, Designation, and Dept as shown below. Generate a query to retrieve the employee details whose Id is 1205.

```+-----+--------------+--------+---------------------------+------+
| Id  | Name         | Salary | Designation               | Dept |
+-----+--------------+------------------------------------+------+
|1201 | Gopal        | 45000  | Technical manager         | TP   |
|1202 | Manisha      | 45000  | Proofreader               | PR   |
|1203 | Masthanvali  | 40000  | Technical writer          | TP   |
|1204 | Krian        | 40000  | Hr Admin                  | HR   |
+-----+--------------+--------+---------------------------+------+
```

The following query is executed to retrieve the employee details using the above table:

```hive> SELECT * FROM employee WHERE Id=1205;
```

On successful execution of query, you get to see the following response:

```+-----+-----------+-----------+----------------------------------+
| ID  | Name      | Salary    | Designation              | Dept  |
+-----+---------------+-------+----------------------------------+
+-----+-----------+-----------+----------------------------------+
```

The following query is executed to retrieve the employee details whose salary is more than or equal to Rs 40000.

```hive> SELECT * FROM employee WHERE Salary>=40000;
```

On successful execution of query, you get to see the following response:

```+-----+------------+--------+----------------------------+------+
| ID  | Name       | Salary | Designation                | Dept |
+-----+------------+--------+----------------------------+------+
|1201 | Gopal      | 45000  | Technical manager          | TP   |
|1202 | Manisha    | 45000  | Proofreader                | PR   |
|1203 | Masthanvali| 40000  | Technical writer           | TP   |
|1204 | Krian      | 40000  | Hr Admin                   | HR   |
+-----+------------+--------+----------------------------+------+
```

## Arithmetic Operators

These operators support various common arithmetic operations on the operands. All of them return number types. The following table describes the arithmetic operators available in Hive:

Operators Operand Description
A + B all number types Gives the result of adding A and B.
A - B all number types Gives the result of subtracting B from A.
A * B all number types Gives the result of multiplying A and B.
A / B all number types Gives the result of dividing B from A.
A % B all number types Gives the reminder resulting from dividing A by B.
A & B all number types Gives the result of bitwise AND of A and B.
A | B all number types Gives the result of bitwise OR of A and B.
A ^ B all number types Gives the result of bitwise XOR of A and B.
~A all number types Gives the result of bitwise NOT of A.

### Example

The following query adds two numbers, 20 and 30.

```hive> SELECT 20+30 ADD FROM temp;
```

On successful execution of the query, you get to see the following response:

```+--------+
+--------+
|   50   |
+--------+
```

## Logical Operators

The operators are logical expressions. All of them return either TRUE or FALSE.

Operators Operands Description
A AND B boolean TRUE if both A and B are TRUE, otherwise FALSE.
A && B boolean Same as A AND B.
A OR B boolean TRUE if either A or B or both are TRUE, otherwise FALSE.
A || B boolean Same as A OR B.
NOT A boolean TRUE if A is FALSE, otherwise FALSE.
!A boolean Same as NOT A.

### Example

The following query is used to retrieve employee details whose Department is TP and Salary is more than Rs 40000.

```hive> SELECT * FROM employee WHERE Salary>40000 && Dept=TP;
```

On successful execution of the query, you get to see the following response:

```+------+--------------+-------------+-------------------+--------+
| ID   | Name         | Salary      | Designation       | Dept   |
+------+--------------+-------------+-------------------+--------+
|1201  | Gopal        | 45000       | Technical manager | TP     |
+------+--------------+-------------+-------------------+--------+
```

## Complex Operators

These operators provide an expression to access the elements of Complex Types.

Operator Operand Description
A[n] A is an Array and n is an int It returns the nth element in the array A. The first element has index 0.
M[key] M is a Map<K, V> and key has type K It returns the value corresponding to the key in the map.
S.x S is a struct It returns the x field of S.