F# - Operators


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An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulations. F# is rich in built-in operators and provides the following types of operators −

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Comparison Operators
  • Boolean Operators
  • Bitwise Operators

Arithmetic Operators

The following table shows all the arithmetic operators supported by F# language. Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then −

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Operator Description Example
+ Adds two operands A + B will give 30
- Subtracts second operand from the first A - B will give -10
* Multiplies both operands A * B will give 200
/ Divides numerator by de-numerator B / A will give 2
% Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division B % A will give 0
** Exponentiation Operator, raises an operand to the power of another B**A will give 2010

Comparison Operators

The following table shows all the comparison operators supported by F# language. These binary comparison operators are available for integral and floating-point types. These operators return values of type bool.

Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then −

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Operator Description Example
= Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. (A == B) is not true.
<> Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. (A <> B) is true.
> Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A > B) is not true.
< Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A < B) is true.
>= Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A >= B) is not true.
<= Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (A <= B) is true.

Boolean Operators

The following table shows all the Boolean operators supported by F# language. Assume variable A holds true and variable B holds false, then −

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Operator Description Example
&& Called Boolean AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then condition becomes true. (A && B) is false.
|| Called Boolean OR Operator. If any of the two operands is non-zero, then condition becomes true. (A || B) is true.
not Called Boolean NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false. not (A && B) is true.

Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators work on bits and perform bit-by-bit operation. The truth tables for &&& (bitwise AND), ||| (bitwise OR), and ^^^ (bitwise exclusive OR) are as follows −

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p q p &&& q p ||| q p ^^^ q
0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 1 1

Assume if A = 60; and B = 13; now in binary format they will be as follows −

A = 0011 1100

B = 0000 1101

-----------------

A&&&B = 0000 1100

A|||B = 0011 1101

A^^^B = 0011 0001

~~~A = 1100 0011

The Bitwise operators supported by F# language are listed in the following table. Assume variable A holds 60 and variable B holds 13, then −

Operator Description Example
&&& Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. (A &&& B) will give 12, which is 0000 1100
||| Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. (A ||| B) will give 61, which is 0011 1101
^^^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (A ^^^ B) will give 49, which is 0011 0001
~~~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. (~~~A) will give -61, which is 1100 0011 in 2's complement form.
<<< Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A <<< 2 will give 240 which is 1111 0000
>>> Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand. A >>> 2 will give 15 which is 0000 1111

Operators Precedence

The following table shows the order of precedence of operators and other expression keywords in the F# language, from lowest precedence to the highest precedence.

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Operator Associativity
as Right
when Right
| (pipe) Left
; Right
let Non associative
function, fun, match, try Non associative
if Non associative
Right
:= Right
, Non associative
or, || Left
&, && Left
< op, >op, =, |op, &op Left
&&& , |||, ^^^, ~~~, <<<, >>> Left
^ op Right
:: Right
:?>, :? Non associative
- op, +op, (binary) Left
* op, /op, %op Left
** op Right
f x (function application) Left
| (pattern match) Right
prefix operators (+op, -op, %, %%, &, &&, !op, ~op) Left
. Left
f(x) Left
f<types> Left


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