F# - Classes


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Classes are types that represent objects that can have properties, methods, and events. ‘They are used to model actions, processes, and any conceptual entities in applications’.

Syntax

Syntax for defining a class type is as follows −

// Class definition:
type [access-modifier] type-name [type-params] [access-modifier] ( parameter-list ) [ as identifier ] =
   [ class ]
      [ inherit base-type-name(base-constructor-args) ]
      [ let-bindings ]
      [ do-bindings ]
      member-list
      ...
   [ end ]

// Mutually recursive class definitions:
type [access-modifier] type-name1 ...
and [access-modifier] type-name2 ...
...

Where,

  • The type-name is any valid identifier. Default access modifier for this is public.

  • The type-params describes optional generic type parameters.

  • The parameter-list describes constructor parameters. Default access modifier for primary constructor is public.

  • The identifier used with the optional as keyword gives a name to the instance variable, or self-identifier, which can be used in the type definition to refer to the instance of the type.

  • The inherit keyword allows you to specify the base class for a class.

  • The let bindings allow you to declare fields or function values local to the class.

  • The do-bindings section includes code to be executed upon object construction.

  • The member-list consists of additional constructors, instance and static method declarations, interface declarations, abstract bindings, and property and event declarations.

  • The keywords class and end that mark the start and end of the definition are optional.

Constructor of a Class

The constructor is code that creates an instance of the class type.

In F#, constructors work little differently than other .Net languages. In the class definition, the arguments of the primary constructor are described as parameter-list.

The body of the constructor consists of the let and do bindings.

You can add additional constructors by using the new keyword to add a member −

new (argument-list) = constructor-body

The following example illustrates the concept −

Example

The following program creates a line class along with a constructor that calculates the length of the line while an object of the class is created −

Live Demo
type Line = class
   val X1 : float
   val Y1 : float
   val X2 : float
   val Y2 : float

   new (x1, y1, x2, y2) as this =
      { X1 = x1; Y1 = y1; X2 = x2; Y2 = y2;}
      then
         printfn " Creating Line: {(%g, %g), (%g, %g)}\nLength: %g"
            this.X1 this.Y1 this.X2 this.Y2 this.Length

   member x.Length =
      let sqr x = x * x
      sqrt(sqr(x.X1 - x.X2) + sqr(x.Y1 - x.Y2) )
end
let aLine = new Line(1.0, 1.0, 4.0, 5.0)

When you compile and execute the program, it yields the following output −

Creating Line: {(1, 1), (4, 5)}
Length: 5

Let Bindings

The let bindings in a class definition allow you to define private fields and private functions for F# classes.

Live Demo
type Greetings(name) as gr =
   let data = name
   do
      gr.PrintMessage()
   member this.PrintMessage() =
      printf "Hello %s\n" data
let gtr = new Greetings("Zara")

When you compile and execute the program, it yields the following output −

Hello Zara

Please note the use of self-identifier gr for the Greetings class.



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