Electric Scooter – Components, Working, and Advantages

Today, electric vehicle industry is one of the fastest growing industry due to several benefits of electric vehicles. These days, we are using various types of electric vehicles such as electric scooter, electric bike, electric car, electric train, etc.

This article is meant for explaining the working and benefits of an electric scooter. An electric scooter is a motor-powered two-wheeler that utilizes electricity as the main source of energy. Hence, one of the most significant advantages of electric scooter is that it is environment friendly. Let us now explore the electric scooter in detail.

What is an Electric Scooter?

An electric scooter, also called e-scooter, is a battery-powered motor-driven two-wheeler. The main source of energy to propel the electric scooter is electricity which is considered the cleanest form of energy.

An electric scooter does not have an engine to drive the wheels, instead it consists of an electric motor that turns the wheels.

Since, there is need of electricity to drive the motor of the e-scooter. Hence, a rechargeable battery is used that provides required electrical energy.

However, the design of the electric scooter looks similar to a traditional scooter, but the internal architecture and mechanism are completely different.

Today, electric scooters are gaining popularity as an easy to drive and eco-friendly mode of transportation.

Let us now discuss the components used in an electric scooter and their function.

Component of Electric Scooter

An electric scooter consists of a large number of mechanical and electronic components to perform various functions like propulsion, control, etc.

Some major components of an electric scooter and their functions are explained below −

Outer Frame

It is the main body of the electric scooter that provides complete housing and support to all the components of the scooter. It is usually made up of a lightweight material like aluminum.

Electric Motor

In electric scooters, the electric motor is the main device that produces propulsion power to rotate the wheels. It can be a brushed dc motor or brushless dc motor (mostly preferred).

Battery Pack

The battery pack stores electrical energy to power the motor and other electronic systems of the electric scooter. It typically consists of batteries of 150 Wh to 625 Wh capacity. However, this capacity can be of up to a hundred Wh. The most common type of battery used in electric scooters is the rechargeable lithium-ion battery due to mature technology.

Troller Control

It is nothing but the accelerator device used to control the speed of the scooter. It sends control signals to the main controller.


It is another important component of an electric scooter. The controller is an electronic system that controls the speed and other functioning of the scooter according to rider’s instructions. One of the primary functions of the controller is to regulate the electric current supplied to the motor as per the throttle control.

Charging Port

It is the component provided to plug the battery charger to recharge the scooter’s battery pack. It is located on the outer frame of the scooter and covered with a protective lid.

Control Panel

Electric scooters typically consist of a control panel with graphical user interface. It mainly has a digital display to show information like speed, battery level, and more. Also, it has various switches to control different functions.

An electric scooter consists several other components as well depending on the model and manufacturer. All these components work together to provide a convenient and eco-friendly mode of mobility.

How Does Electric Scooter Work?

Let us now understand the working of an electric scooter.

Firstly, the electric scooter is started by supplying DC power from battery to the electric motor, for this a start button is provided on the control panel.

Then, the rider moves the throttle control that sends an electric signal to the controller. The controller releases a controlled amount of electrical energy from the battery pack to an electric motor.

The electric motor drives the wheels of the scooter using the electric power and propels it forward. This is how an electric scooter works.

Advantages of Electric Scooter

The electric scooters are becoming more popular due to the following key advantages over traditional scooters −

  • Electric scooters do not emit pollutants and greenhouse gases. Hence, they are environment friendly mode of mobility.

  • Due to less moving parts, their maintenance cost is significantly lower than traditional scooters.

  • The operating cost per km of an electric scooter is very low around 0.25 INR.

  • Electric scooters have quieter operation. Thus, helps to reduce noise pollution.

  • Electric scooters are easy to drive, as there are no gears and clutch mechanism. Also, they provide rapid acceleration which is beneficial in busy streets.

Disadvantages of Electric Scooters

Electric scooters offer several advantages as listed above. However, they also have some challenges and disadvantages. Some major disadvantages associated with electric scooters are given below −

  • Electric scooters are not suitable for longer journeys due to limited range on a single charge.

  • The charging stations are limited in some major cities.

  • Degradation of battery over time results in reduced distance range per charge. Also, the replacement of battery pack can be very expensive.

  • Electric scooters are not suitable to use on worst road conditions.

These are some key challenges of electric scooters. However, these challenges will be addressed with the advancement in technology.


It appears that the future of electric scooters is promising. As they are gaining popularity day-by-day with the technological advancements. Due to increasing adoption and awareness towards environment, the electric scooters are becoming more common mode of transportation.

In conclusion, electric scooter is one of the eco-friendly, low cost, and convenient mode of transformation. It is likely to seen that it will become a sustainable transportation solution in future.

Updated on: 13-Nov-2023


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