Digital Electronics Flip-flops and their Types

Electronics & ElectricalDigital ElectronicsMiscellaneous

A flip-flop is a sequential digital electronic circuit having two stable states that can be used to store one bit of binary data. Flip-flops are the fundamental building blocks of all memory devices.

Types of Flip–Flops

  • S-R flip-flop
  • J-K flip-flop
  • D flip-flop
  • T flip-flop

S-R Flip-flop

  • This is the simplest flip-flop circuit. It has a set input (S) and a reset input (R). When in this circuit when S is set as active, the output Q would be high and the Q’ will be low. If R is set to active then the output Q is low and the Q’ is high. Once the outputs are established, the results of the circuit are maintained until S or R get changed, or the power is turned off.

  • Truth table of S-R flip-flop
SRQState
000No Change
010Reset
101Set
11X
  • Characteristics Table of S-R flip-flop
SRQ(t)Q(t+1)
0000
0011
0100
0110
1001
1011
110X
111X
  • Characteristics equation of S-R flip-flop

$$\mathrm{Q(t+1)=S+R`Q(t)}$$

J-K Flip-flop

  • Because of the invalid state corresponding to S=R=1 in the SR flip-flop, there is a need of another flip-flop. The JK flip-flop operates with only positive or negative clock transitions. The operation of the JK flip-flop is similar to the SR flip-flop. When the input J and K are different then the output Q takes the value of J at the next clock edge. When J and K both are low then NO change occurs at the output. If both J and K are high, then at the clock edge, the output will toggle from one state to the other.

  • Truth table of JK flip-flop
JKQState
000No Change
010Reset
101Set
11TogglesToggle
  • Characteristics table of JK flip-flop
JKQ(t)Q(t+1)
0000
0011
0100
0110
1001
1011
1101
1110
  • Characteristics equation of JK flip-flop

$$\mathrm{Q(t+1)=jkQ(t)`+K`Q(t)}$$

D Flip-flop

  • In a D flip-flop, the output can only be changed at positive or negative clock transitions, and when the inputs changed at other times, the output will remain unaffected. The D flip-flops are generally used for shift-registers and counters. The change in output state of D flip-flop depends upon the active transition of clock. The output (Q) is same as input and changes only at active transition of clock

  • Truth table of D flip-flop
DQ
00
11
  • Characteristics equation of D flip-flop

$$\mathrm{Q(t+1)=D}$$

T Flip-flop

  • A T flip-flop (Toggle Flip-flop) is a simplified version of JK flip-flop. The T flop is obtained by connecting the J and K inputs together. The flip-flop has one input terminal and clock input. These flip-flops are said to be T flip-flops because of their ability to toggle the input state. Toggle flip-flops are mostly used in counters.

  • Truth Table of T flip-flop
TQ(t)Q(t+1)
000
011
101
110
  • Characteristics equation of T flip-flop

$$\mathrm{Q(t+1)=T'Q(t)+TQ(t)'=T\oplus Q(t)}$$

Applications of Flip-flops

  • Counters
  • Shift Registers
  • Storage Registers, etc.
raja
Published on 26-May-2021 14:31:40
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