C++ Program to Implement Quick Sort Using Randomization

The quicksort technique is done by separating the list into two parts. Initially a pivot element is chosen by partitioning algorithm. The left part of the pivot holds the smaller values than pivot, and right part holds the larger value. After partitioning, each separate lists are partitioned using same procedure.

In this case we are choosing the pivot element randomly. After choosing the pivot, we are doing the partitioning, then sort the array recursively.

The complexity of Quicksort Technique

• Time Complexity − O(n log n) for best case and average case, O(n2) for worst case.

• Space Complexity − O(log n)

Input − The unsorted list: 90 45 22 11 22 50
Output − Array after Sorting: 11 22 22 45 50 90

Algorithm

partition(array, lower, upper)

Input − The data set array, lower boundary and upper boundary

Output − Pivot in the correct position

Begin
index := lower
pivot := higher
for i in range lower to higher, do
if array[i] < array[pivot], then
exchange the values of array[i] and array[index]
index := index + 1
done
exchange the values of array[pivot] and array[index]
End

random_pivot_partition(array, lower, upper)

Input − The data set array, lower boundary and upper boundary

Output − Final index of randomly chosen pivot

Begin
n := a random number
pvt := lower + n mod (upper – lower + 1)
exchange the values of array[pivot] and array[upper]
index := Partition(array, lower, upper)
return index
End

quickSort(array, left, right)

Input − An array of data, and lower and upper bound of the array

Output − The sorted Array

Begin
if lower < right then
q = random_pivot_partition(array, left, right).
quickSort(array, left, q-1)
quickSort(array, q+1, right)
End

Example Code

#include<iostream>
#include<cstdlib>
#include<ctime>
#define MAX 100
using namespace std;
void random_shuffle(int arr[]) {
//function to shuffle the array elements into random positions
srand(time(NULL));
for (int i = MAX - 1; i > 0; i--) {
int j = rand()%(i + 1);
int temp = arr[i];
arr[i] = arr[j];
arr[j] = temp;
}
}
// Partitioning the array on the basis of values at high as pivot value.
int Partition(int a[], int low, int high) {
int pivot, index, i;
index = low;
pivot = high;
for(i=low; i < high; i++) {
// finding index of pivot.
if(a[i] < a[pivot]) {
swap(a[i], a[index]);
index++;
}
}
swap(a[pivot], a[index]);
return index;
}
int RandomPivotPartition(int a[], int low, int high){
// Random selection of pivot.
int pvt, n, temp;
n = rand();
pvt = low + n%(high-low+1); // Randomizing the pivot value from sub-array.
swap(a[high], a[pvt]);
return Partition(a, low, high);
}
void quick_sort(int arr[], int p, int q) {
//recursively sort the list
int pindex;
if(p < q) {
pindex = RandomPivotPartition(arr, p, q); //randomly choose pivot
// Recursively implementing QuickSort.
quick_sort(arr, p, pindex-1);
quick_sort(arr, pindex+1, q);
}
}
int main() {
int i;
int arr[MAX];
for (i = 0;i < MAX; i++)
arr[i] = i + 1;
random_shuffle(arr); //To randomize the array
quick_sort(arr, 0, MAX - 1); //sort the elements of array
for (i = 0; i < MAX; i++)
cout << arr[i] << " ";
cout << endl;
return 0;
}

Output

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

Updated on: 30-Jul-2019

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