# C++ Program to Implement Counting Sort

Counting sort is a stable sorting technique, which is used to sort objects according the keys that are small numbers. It counts the number of keys whose key values are same. This sorting technique is efficient when difference between different keys are not so big, otherwise it can increase the space complexity.

## The complexity of counting Sort Technique

• Time Complexity: O(n+r)

• Space Complexity: O(n+r)

Input − A list of unsorted data: 2 5 6 2 3 10 3 6 7 8

Output − Array after Sorting: 2 2 3 3 5 6 6 7 8 10

## Algorithm

### countingSort(array, size)

Input: An array of data, and the total number in the array

Output: The sorted Array

Begin
max = get maximum element from array.
define count array of size [max+1]
for i := 0 to max do
count[i] = 0 //set all elements in the count array to 0
done
for i := 1 to size do
increase count of each number which have found in the array
done
for i := 1 to max do
count[i] = count[i] + count[i+1] //find cumulative frequency
done
for i := size to 1 decrease by 1 do
store the number in the output array
decrease count[i]
done
return the output array
End

## Example Code

#include<iostream>
#include<algorithm>
using namespace std;
void display(int *array, int size) {
for(int i = 1; i<=size; i++)
cout << array[i] << " ";
cout << endl;
}
int getMax(int array[], int size) {
int max = array[1];
for(int i = 2; i<=size; i++) {
if(array[i] > max)
max = array[i];
}
return max; //the max element from the array
}
void countSort(int *array, int size) {
int output[size+1];
int max = getMax(array, size);
int count[max+1];     //create count array (max+1 number of elements)
for(int i = 0; i<=max; i++)
count[i] = 0;     //initialize count array to all zero
for(int i = 1; i <=size; i++)
count[array[i]]++;     //increase number count in count array.
for(int i = 1; i<=max; i++)
count[i] += count[i-1];     //find cumulative frequency
for(int i = size; i>=1; i--) {
output[count[array[i]]] = array[i];
count[array[i]] -= 1; //decrease count for same numbers
}
for(int i = 1; i<=size; i++) {
array[i] = output[i]; //store output array to main array
}
}
int main() {
int n;
cout << "Enter the number of elements: ";
cin >> n;
int arr[n+1];       //create an array with given number of elements
cout << "Enter elements:" << endl;
for(int i = 1; i<=n; i++) {
cin >> arr[i];
}
cout << "Array before Sorting: ";
display(arr, n);
countSort(arr, n);
cout << "Array after Sorting: ";
display(arr, n);
}

## Output

Enter the number of elements: 10
Enter elements:
2 5 6 2 3 10 3 6 7 8
Array before Sorting: 2 5 6 2 3 10 3 6 7 8
Array after Sorting: 2 2 3 3 5 6 6 7 8 10

Updated on: 30-Jul-2019

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