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Botanical Name of Rose
Rosa rubiginosa is the scientific name for rose. Roses belong to the Rosaceae family, and there are about 360 species in the genus Rosa. Erect bushes with stems are their defining characteristics.
Roses come in a variety of colours, such as red, white, yellow, blue, and many others. Roses are prized for their vivid colour, intricate petal arrangement, and fragrant scent. It also serves a functional purpose of slope stabilisation. The size of rose differs depending on the species. Roses are simple to grow since they are easily hybridised.
The majority of rose species are from Asia, while some are from Europe, North America, and other places.
Some of the types of roses are −
Rosa grand flora
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Biological Classification of Rose
Biological classification is used to make identification easier, to discover the origin and evolution of a species, and to exhibit the species according to their similarities and differences.
The biological classification of rose is as follows −
Kingdom − Plantae
Phylum − Angiosperma
Class − Eudicot
Order − Rosales
Family − Rosaceae
Genus − Rosa
Species − rubiginosa
In India, rose cultivation thrives in a somewhat cool climate with bright sunlight and free ventilation. Most rose cultivars thrive at temperatures between 15 and 27 degrees Celsius, producing high-quality flowers in large quantities.
Roses grow best in medium loam soil with lots of organic matter, good drainage, and a pH of 6.0 to 7.0. The soil should be dug or ploughed to a depth of 20-30 cm and kept in the sun for at least 15 days.
After eliminating the weeds, the field should be ploughed and levelled for rose plant cultivation. Rose cultivation is impossible on waterlogged soil.
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On the rootstock, ‘T’ or shield budding is used to grow rose blossoms economically. Rootstocks and tiny roses are propagated through cuttings. Months from December to February are for budding.
Selection of Rootstock
The rootstock used is determined by the soil and climatic conditions of the area, and different rootstocks are employed in different situations. In Jammu, Rosa indica var. odorata is widely used for budding.
Budding is done on a strong rootstock stem, approximately the thickness of an average pencil of around 5-8 cm above the ground level after cleaning, and removing the thorns. After opening the top with the flat end of the knife, this bud is inserted in the T-shaped incision (approximately 2.5 cm) created on the stem of the rootstock.
Later, alkathene taps, measuring 45 cm long and 6 cm wide, are tied around the bud point to keep the eye open, and blossoming commences after the bud’s union.
Manure and Fertilizer
Manuring used while preparing rose beds or pits for new plantings, and thoroughly decomposed FYM 8-10 kg/pit is added shortly after pruning for existing plants.
When utilising NPK fertilisers, a mixture of 50 mg per plant or 10 kg per 100 square meter is necessary. The first treatment of a 1:3:2 mixture of Urea, Single Superphosphate, and Potassium Sulphate was made during pruning, the second when the first flush was ended, and the third towards the end of February.
Growth, soil texture, climate, and glass house or field conditions are all elements that determine irrigation frequency.
Pruning is a crucial element of rose care and should be done with accuracy. The best time to prune is when the rains have stopped and winter is coming. This is the weather on the North Indian Plains from the end of September to the middle of October.
Pinching is a technique for promoting axillary branching in newly budded plants by removing a section of the terminal growing region of the stem.
Only keeping the centre bud and removing the others results in a quality bloom, which is common in hybrid tea roses used for cut flowers.
Flowers for decoration and marketing should be cut during the tight bud stage, when the buds have started to show colour but the petals have not yet begun to unfurl.
Black Dot Spot
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On leaves, dark brown to blackish circular dots emerge. The disease infects older leaves on the lower side first, then spreads to the higher leaves.
Spraying 0.2 percent Captan at fortnightly in varies by regular intervals can readily control it.
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It is a dangerous disease that can occur in hot, humid, or cool temperatures. The flower stem (peduncle) and fragile leaves are the first to be damaged, with a whitish powder on the leaves’ upper surface.
Sulphur dusting or fungicide spraying of 0.2 percent Karathane can be used to control it.
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After trimming, a severe rose disease called dieback develops. The disease spreads downhill by cut wounds or dried flowers or branches. As the name implies, the illness spreads downhill through cut wounds or dried flowers/branches.
The disease is controlled by removing the diseased section approximately an inch below the healthy tissues and then using Bavistin paste or spray.
Preparation of scented and perfumed products
Flowers are the key element in perfumes and other scented items. Roses are used in the manufacture of these products because of their natural aroma. Therefore, perfumes, room fresheners, and other scented products are made with roses.
It has been proven that the rose’s aroma acts as a sedative and can improve one’s mood. Rose fragrance can create a soft and seductive mood by providing a fresh and pure ambience.
Roses are well-known for their culinary uses in addition to their therapeutic uses.
Rose is used to make a range of products, including rose syrups, rose essences, rose petal jams, and flavouring agents.
Rose hips are the tangiest portion, with a fruity flavour comparable to cranberry, and can be eaten fresh, dried, or preserved.
Herbal tea is usually made using crushed rose hips.
Rose oil is used to flavour candies, syrups, and sweets, among other things.
Crushed rose petals are also used to decorate cakes because it is fragrant and non-poisonous.
It also contains vitamin C, which helps to boost our immune system.
Roses have therapeutic properties in addition to their lovely beauty.
It is antibacterial, anti-oxidant, and rich in vitamin A, B3, C, D, and E.
The rose flower and its compounds have a calming impact on us when we are depressed. The natural rose water, essence, and oils are extracted by crushing rose petals.
Rose water also soothes nerve stress and reduces capillary oedema.
Rose Petal Tea aids in the production of bile and the cleansing of the gallbladder.
Roses may be used to decorate everything from a happy wedding to a funeral.
Q1. Rose plant belongs to which family?
Q2. Commercial variety of rose is primarily multiplied by_____________.
Q3. Most suitable rose pruning time is________________.
Ans: October – November
Q4. Major constituent of rose oil is ________________________.
Q5. Rose petal tea aids in the production of __________________.
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