Botanical Name of Cabbage

BiologyBotanical Name

Introduction: Cabbage

Cabbage is a widely used vegetable throughout the world. Cabbage belongs to the Brassica oleracea family of plants. Kale, cauliflower, broccoli, collard green and radish are the parts of this same family. Cabbage is a leafy vegetable which comes in multiple colours green, purple, red or white. Cabbage is an herbaceous, dicotyledonous flowering plant. Its leaves form a characteristic compact cluster.

A cabbage consists of succulent leaves. These leaves are covered in waxy coating which provides the cabbage leaves their grey-green or blue-green colour. A cabbage usually has weight in the range of 500–000 grams. However, many times it can grow much bigger in size.

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Scientific Classification

  • Scientific Name− Brassica oleracea var. capitata

  • Domain− Eukaryota

  • Kingdom− Plantae

  • Genus− Brassica

  • Class− Dicotyledonae

  • Phylum− Spermatophyta

  • Subphylum− Angiospermae


Cabbage has an extensive history attached to it. Though its exact origin is difficult to trace, it is supposed to have originated from the Mediterranean region of Europe. The cabbage which we see and use nowadays is descended from the wild cabbage, brassica oleracea. It is assumed that the wild brassica oleracea is cultivated for several thousand years. The wild brassica oleracea is a biennial plant which is tall in height. It forms a stout rosette of large leaves in the first year of its development. It has thick and flashy leaves which are helpful in storing water and other nutrients in harsh growing conditions. It grows flower-spikes of yellow colour in the second year.

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The primitive types of cabbages were grown for medicinal purposes. It gained prominence as a garden vegetable in Europe during the 16th century. From there it was introduced worldwide. There is definite evidence of domesticated cabbage since Greek and Roman times. There is evidence of cabbage cultivation in China since 4,000 B.C.E.

Soil Requirements

Cabbage is a type of cole crop.

  • Sandy to heavy soils which have high organic matter content are generally used for cultivating cabbage.

  • Light soil is more suited for early crops development, while better moisture retention quality of heavier soil works better for late crops. Heavy soils are better suited for cabbage cultivations as the cabbage plant grows slowly which keeps its quality improved.

  • The most suitable soil pH range for cabbage is 5.5–6.5. Saline soil is not suited for cabbage growth as the crops grown on it are prone to diseases.

Climate Requirements

In India, the cabbage is grown in cold and moist regions.

  • Cool and moist climate is most suitable for cabbage cultivation. The ideal temperature for cabbage production and growth is 15°–21°C.

  • Relative humidity of 90–100% is best suited.

  • The cabbage crops have good tolerance to both frost and heat. The taste of cabbage improves in frost.

  • It is mainly grown as a rabi crop in India during the winter season.

  • The flowering of a cabbage plant depends upon the age of the plant as well as the duration for which it is exposed to cold. Rainfall of 400–600 mm is considered optimal for cabbage cultivation.

Plantation Season and Varieties

The plantation time of cabbage is dependent on the agro-climatic conditions of the region as well as the type of seeds being used. There are many varieties of cabbage grown around the world.

Some of these are midseason Market, September Early, Early Drum Head, Late Large Drum Head, K-1, Golden acre and Pride of India. The early cabbage requires a lot of time for head formation.

The best time of sowing it in plain regions is July–September and for hilly and mountain regions is April to August.


The soil preparation for cabbage requires digging deeper and mixing with compost.

  • Cabbage is usually grown in rotation with other crops such as rice, maize, potato, tomato, onion, carrot, etc. Different fertilizers depending upon the soil type and climate can be used for boosting yield and increasing production.

  • The cabbage seeds need 3–6 days for germinating at the average temperature ranging from 15–20°C.

  • The seedling develops 3–5 true leaves within 5 weeks after sowing.

  • The first few leaves about 5–16 take the shape of a rosette also called cabbage frame. The rest of leaves folds partly and form the head shell.

  • As the time passes the heads grows in size and is filled with fleshy leaves. The stems also become thick with time.

Cabbage is prone to nutrition deficiencies, bacterial and fungal diseases. Many types of pests also affect it.

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Cabbage crops are usually harvested within 90–120 days of its plantation. Some varieties of cabbage can mature in about 50 days. It should be harvested once the head is firm and mature. Premature harvesting of cabbage results in decreased yield. Premature harvest may also result in the damage of the soft heads during handling.

Also, the immature heads have a short life span as compared to the mature heads. Harvesting beyond maturity makes the yield susceptible to field disease. It also results in split heads.

Nutritional Content

The below given table details the major nutritional contents of 100 grams edible portion of a Cabbage −

Water 90.1 g
Energy 26 Kcal
Protein 1.7 g
Fat 0.4 g
Carbohydrate 4.1 g
Fibre 2.9 g
Calcium 52 mg
Magnesium 8 mg
Potassium 41 mg
Iron 0.7 mg

Table: Nutrition Contents of Cabbage

Cabbage Uses and Benefits

Cabbage is used in many different ways.

  • It is widely used in salads, stir fires, and soups.

  • It can be steamed and fermented.

  • It can also be eaten raw or can be juiced. Cabbage juices have many nutrients in them such as Vitamin C, Vitamin K and also have high amounts of antioxidants.

Cabbage has many health benefits such as it helps improve gut health, decreases inflammation.

  • It helps in weight reduction.

  • It is also believed to balance hormones and help in body detoxification.

  • It helps the body in better absorption of nutrients.

The consumption of cabbage juices must be monitored, as high amounts of cabbage juice affect thyroid and can interfere with certain medication. High quantity of Vitamin K in cabbage makes it act like a natural blood thinner hence portion control is very important.


Cabbage is an annual vegetable crop. Nowadays cabbage is cultivated in many shapes, colours and leaf textures. Common leaf types are crinkled-leaf, loose-head savoys, and smooth-leaf firm-head cabbages.

Firm Green cabbages with smooth-leaves are more common as compared to purple cabbages with smooth leaves or crinkled leaves cabbages of both green and purple colour.


Q1. What is the correct scientific name of cabbage?

a) Pisum sativum

b) Brassica oleracea var. botrytis

c) Raphanus sativus

d) Brassica oleracea var. capitata

Ans: d

Q2. What is the correct fibre content in 100 grams of cabbage?

a) 2.9 g

b) 4.1 g

c) 5.2 g

d) 8.6 g

Ans: a

Q3. Which of the following types of soil is not suitable for cabbage cultivation?

a) Sandy Soil

b) Heavy Soil

c) Saline soil

d) Cabbage grows very well in any one of the above types of soils.

Ans: c

Q4. What is the approximate time taken by cabbage seed for germinating in ideal temperature conditions?

a) 1 – 2 days

b) 3 – 6 days

c) 4 – 10 days

d) 8 – 16 days

Ans: b

Q5. Which of the following types of vitamins are present in cabbage?

a) Vitamin-C

b) Vitamin-K

c) Both a and b

d) Neither a nor b

Ans: c

Updated on 13-Oct-2022 11:19:47