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Botanical Name of Soybean
Glycine max, popularly known as soybean, is an East Asian legume species. It is an annual plant that develops to be 1.5 to 2 meters tall. The leaves have 9–19 leaflets and are pinnate. The blooms are tiny and yellow, and they appear in racemes. The fruit is a hairy pod with 4–8 seeds within.
History of Soyabean
The origins of the soybean plant are unknown; however, many botanists believe it was domesticated as early as 7000 BCE in central China. The soybean has been used as a food and a component of medicines in China, Japan, and Korea for thousands of years.
Soybeans were first introduced in the United States in 1804 and grew in popularity in the South and Midwest throughout the mid-20th century. Argentina and Brazil are also important producers.
Classification of Soyabean
Soybeans are a legume produced for their edible seeds. The plant is an annual that grows to a height of 2–3 feet. Trifoliate leaves and little white blooms adorn the soybean plant. Flowers are followed by seed pods. The seeds are kidney-shaped and roughly an inch long. Seeds are a nutrient-dense food that are high in protein, fibre, vitamins, and minerals.
Leguminosae is the plant family that includes soybeans. Leguminosae is a broad plant family that comprises a range of legume crops like beans, peas, and lentils. Glycine max and Glycine soja are the two primary subspecies of soybean plant. The Glycine max subspecies is the most widespread and most commonly produced for human use.
Scientific Classification of Soyabean
Kingdom − Plantae
Phylum − Magnoliphyta
Class − Eudicot
Order − Roseacae
Family − Leguminosae
Genus − Glycine
Species − G. max
Soybean is a warm-season crop that can be planted in the summer. Soybean plants thrive in loamy, well-drained, fertile soil. Soybean land preparation should begin with good ploughing and then laddering.
Sowing soybeans is best done around the middle of June. Seeds should be planted in rows 45-50 cm apart using the seed drill method. Seeds should be spaced 4-7 cm apart. For sowing in 1-acre ground, a seed rate of 25-30 kg is recommended.
Soybeans can use nitrogen from the atmosphere, but this is insufficient. As a result, the crop receives 10–15% of its overall nitrogen demand. It is sufficient to use 12.5 kg of nitrogen per acre and 32 kg of phosphorus per acre. Potash is only necessary if a deficit is discovered.
Soybeans are typically grown in rain fed environments. They require 5–6 irrigation if grown in the summer.
Some pests that can damage soy crops are white fly, tobacco caterpillar, hairy caterpillar, and blister beetle. To guard against these pests, appropriate pest control strategies can be applied.
When the leaves turn yellow and the pods dry, the crop is mature and ready to harvest. Harvesting can be carried out by hand, sickle, or threshing machine.
Bacterial leaf blight
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Every year, bacterial leaf blight is observed in most soybean crops. The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. Glycinea causes it. In July and August, the sickness is most prevalent after windy thunderstorms. Snap and Lima beans are also susceptible to the bacterium. Brown spot (Septoria leaf spot) and bacterial pustule are two diseases that are frequently mistaken. Both bacterial blight and brown spot can appear in the same field or even on the same plant, making it difficult to distinguish between the two.
Brown Stem Rot
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Brown stem rot is a serious soybean disease that is found in soybean fields across the North Central United States and Canada. Shorter rotations between soybean and corn, which promote the BSR pathogen to develop up, are likely to be the cause of the rise in BSR cases. Cadophora gregata, a soil borne fungus, causes BSR. The fungus thrives primarily in soil and crop residue. During the vegetative and early reproductive growth stages, the fungus attacks soybean roots in the spring and gradually travels up into the stem. The fungus obstructs the flow of water and nutrients that are required for growth. Internal browning of the stem appears around the time of full pod development, indicating brown stem rot.
Downy Mildew is a common fungal leaf disease that affects soybeans planted anywhere, especially in wet and humid climates. Peronospora manshurica, the downy mildew pathogen, can be found in crop residue and on seed surfaces. The pathogen belongs to the same family of water mould pathogens that cause Phytophthora root rot, Pythium seedling blight, and late potato blight.
Green Stem Disease
Green Stem is a soybean disease in which the stems stay green and moist long after the pods and seeds have matured and dried. Green soybean syndrome, green stem disorder, and greening effect are all terms used to characterise the condition.
Iron Deficiency Chlorosis
IDC is a physiological condition induced by iron deficiency in the plant that can result in significant production loss in affected fields. IDC is caused by the plant’s inability to absorb iron from the soil, rather than a shortage of it.
Anthracnose Stem Blight Disease
Several Colletotrichum fungus are responsible for Anthracnose Stem Blight. Every season, it is found in some degree in soybean fields, but it rarely causes serious symptoms or production loss. Anthracnose can combine with Phomopsis pod and stem blight and purple seed stain to drastically degrade seed quality, resulting in a price dockage at the point of sale when rainy, humid weather occurs continuously during the reproductive stages of growth.
Important Uses of Soybean
For human consumption
Soy oil can be used as a baking oil as well as a component in salad dressings and margarines. Soy is also found in foods such as soy sauce, breakfast cereal, and soy milk.
Poultry and animal feed
After the soybean oil is removed, the high-protein fiber is roasted and turned into animal feed for poultry, swine, cattle, fish, and pets. Soybeans are fed to poultry in large quantities.
Transesterification is a method that converts soybeans into biodiesel fuel for biodiesel engines. The glycerin in the oil is simply removed during this process. Soy biodiesel is preferable to petroleum-based diesel because it burns cleaner. Reduced particle emissions, non-toxicity, renewability, and environmental friendliness are only a few of the benefits.
Building materials constructed from recycled newspaper and soybeans are known as bio composites. They take the place of other wood-based products like furniture, countertops, and flooring.
Because it is non-toxic and easy to clean up, soy ink is preferable than petroleum ink.
Q1. Botanical name of Soybean is ----------------.
Ans: Glycine max
Q2. Black color in soybean is due to ----------.
Q3. Soybean is rich in ------------.
Ans: Vitamin A
Q4. Name the pathogen that causes BSR in soybean.
Ans: Cadophora gregata
Q5. The plant family that includes soybean is ------------.
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