Bootstrap - Overview


Bootstrap is a popular open-source front-end framework that is used to create responsive and mobile-first websites and web applications.

It provides a collection of CSS and JavaScript components, such as grids, forms, buttons, navigation bars, and more, which can be easily implemented and customized to create responsive and visually appealing web interfaces.

With Bootstrap, developers can save time and effort by utilizing pre-designed components, as well as the grid system for creating responsive layouts. It also provides numerous styling options and utilities to enhance the overall appearance and functionality of websites. Bootstrap is widely used by web developers to streamline the web development process and create consistent and visually appealing user interfaces.

History of Bootstrap

Mark Otto and Jacob Thornton developed the Bootstrap, at Twitter. In August 2011, Bootstrap was released as an open source product, on GitHub.

Key points in Bootstrap 5 and later versions

There are several new features and changes in Bootstrap 5 compared to Bootstrap 4. Some of the notable ones include:

  1. Smaller file size: Bootstrap 5.* is designed to be more lightweight, with the removal of jQuery and other dependencies. It has switched to Vanilla JavaScript. This leads to faster load times.

  2. Improved grid system: The grid system in Bootstrap 5.* comes with a new, more flexible layout. It introduces a new gap utility and no longer relies on floats.

  3. Updated default colors and theming: Bootstrap 5.* introduces a new default color palette and theme. The new colors are more modern and visually appealing.

  4. Improved form controls: The form controls in Bootstrap 5.* have been enhanced with new styles and options. There are new styles for checkboxes and radio buttons, as well as improved custom select menus.

  5. New helpers and utilities: Bootstrap 5.* introduces new utility classes and helpers, such as vertical centering, stretched link utility, and more.

  6. Improved documentation and accessibility: The documentation for Bootstrap 5 has been updated and improved, making it easier to use and understand. Additionally, Bootstrap 5 focuses more on accessibility, with better ARIA support and improved keyboard navigation.

Bootstrap - advantages

There are several benefits of using Bootstrap:

  1. Responsive design: Bootstrap is built with a mobile-first approach, meaning it is designed to be responsive and adapt to different screen sizes. This ensures that your mobile application looks good and functions well on various devices, including smartphones and tablets.

  2. Time-saving: Bootstrap provides a wide range of predefined and customizable CSS and JavaScript components, such as grids, buttons, navigation bars, and modals. These ready-to-use components help developers save time and effort by eliminating the need to code everything from scratch.

  3. Consistent appearance: With Bootstrap, you can achieve a consistent and professional-looking design across your mobile application. It offers a set of predefined styles and themes that can be easily customized to match your brand's identity.

  4. Cross-browser compatibility: Bootstrap is designed to work well across different web browsers, ensuring that your mobile application functions consistently for users, regardless of the browser they prefer to use.

  5. Community and support: Bootstrap has a large and active community of developers who contribute to its improvement and provide support through forums and online resources. This can be helpful if you encounter any challenges or have questions during the development of your mobile application.

  6. Accessibility: Bootstrap follows modern web development standards and best practices, including accessibility guidelines. This ensures that your mobile application is accessible to users with disabilities, enhancing its usability and reach.

  7. Continuous updates and enhancements: Bootstrap is regularly updated and improved with new features, bug fixes, and performance enhancements. By using Bootstrap, you can take advantage of these updates to keep your mobile application up-to-date and optimized.

Bootstrap - important globals

Let's examine how Bootstrap utilizes a limited number of crucial global styles and settings that are primarily focused on normalizing cross-browser styles.

HTML5 doctype

HTML5 doctype is crucial to be used, without which the styling will be incomplete and inappropriate.

For LTR direction:

    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html lang="en">

For RTL direction:

    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html lang="ar" dir="rtl">

Viewport meta

Bootstrap follows a "mobile-first" development approach, where the code is initially optimized for mobile devices, and then components are scaled up as needed through CSS media queries. To ensure accurate rendering and touch zooming on all devices, it's essential to include the responsive viewport meta tag in the <head> section of your webpage.

    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">


The global box-sizing value is switched from content-box to border-box, for extensive sizing in CSS. It ensures that the final width of an element is not affected by the padding.

The following code will let all the nested elements, including the ones with generated content via ::before and ::after, inherit the specified box-sizing for that .selector-for-some-widget:

    .selector-for-some-widget {
        box-sizing: content-box;


In order to correct the inconsistencies across various browsers and devices, use reboot. This will improve the cross-browser rendering.

Use of CDN

CDN, Content Delivery Network, is a network of servers that speeds up the loading of webpages for data-heavy applications.

How to use Bootstrap CDN?

Follow the steps given below:

  1. Build a basic HTML file - Use your preferred code editor to create the file

  2. Convert the file to a Bootstrap template - Include the Bootstrap CSS CDN and Bootstrap JS CDN files, along with Popper and Bootstrap jQuery through their CDN links

  3. Save and view the file - Save the file with extension .html and as a template.