Batch Gradient Descent vs Stochastic Gradie Descent


Gradient descent could be a broadly utilized optimization algorithm in machine learning, empowering models to play down the taken−a−toll work and learn from information productively. Two common varieties of gradient descent are Batch Gradient Descent (BGD) and Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD). Whereas both calculations point to imperatively overhauling demonstrate parameters based on the angles, they contrast in their approaches to taking care of information and merging. This article gives an in−depth comparison of BGD and SGD, highlighting their contrasts, preferences, utilize cases, and trade−offs.

What is Batch Gradient Descent?

It calculates the normal slope overall preparing cases, driving to slower merging but more steady overhauls. BGD requires memory to store the complete dataset, making it reasonable for little to medium−sized datasets and raising issues where a precise overhaul is craved. Due to its dependence on the whole dataset, BGD may be computationally costly for huge datasets, because it requires handling the whole dataset in each iteration. However, BGD is more likely to merge with the worldwide minima and gives a steadier arrangement since its midpoints the slopes over the whole dataset.

The key characteristic of BGD is that it considers the complete dataset at once, allowing for a comprehensive understanding of the data`s structure and providing a more stable update process. By averaging the gradients over the entire dataset, BGD reduces the impact of noisy updates that may occur when processing individual examples. This averaging process helps smooth out the updates and provides a more consistent direction toward the minimum cost function.

However, BGD’s reliance on the entire dataset introduces some limitations. Firstly, BGD can be computationally expensive, especially for large datasets, as it requires processing the entire dataset in each iteration. This can be a memory−intensive task as well since the entire dataset needs to be stored in memory to compute the gradients. Additionally, BGD may converge relatively slower compared to other gradient descent variants since it updates the parameters after processing the entire dataset. It may require more iterations to reach an optimal solution, especially for datasets with complex patterns or large numbers of features.

What is Stochastic Gradient Descent?

Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) may be a variation of angle plunge that overhauls demonstrate parameters after handling each preparing illustration or a small subset called a mini−batch. Unlike Batch Gradient Descent (BGD), which considers the complete dataset, SGD points for speedier merging by making visit upgrades based on personal illustrations.

The essential advantage of SGD is its productivity in dealing with large−scale datasets. Since it forms one case or mini−batch at a time, SGD requires altogether less memory compared to BGD. This makes it appropriate for datasets that do not fit into memory, empowering the preparation of models on extensive sums of data. The incremental nature of SGD moreover makes it computationally proficient, because it maintains a strategic distance from the must prepare the complete dataset in each emphasis.

Batch Gradient Descent vs Stochastic Gradient Descent

The differences are highlighted in the following table:

Basis of Difference

Batch Gradient Descent

Stochastic Gradient Descent

Update Frequency

After preparing the complete dataset, calculates the normal angle.

After handling each prepared illustration or a little subset (mini−batch).


Slower convergence because it considers the whole dataset at once.

Faster convergence due to visit upgrades based on personal illustrations.

Memory Usage

It requires memory to store the whole dataset.

It requires less memory because it forms one illustration (or a mini−batch) at a time.

Computational Efficiency

Computationally costly for expansive datasets.

Productive for expansive datasets due to its incremental nature.


More steady and less loud due to averaging over the whole dataset

Noisier and less steady due to overhauls based on personal illustrations

Use Cases

Little to medium−sized datasets, arched issues.

Huge datasets, online learning, nonconvex issues


In conclusion, BGD gives soundness and merging ensures, making it appropriate for arched optimization issues and little to medium−sized datasets. On the other hand, SGD offers computational productivity, quicker merging, and adaptability for large−scale datasets, online learning, and non−convex issues. The choice between BGD and SGD depends on components such as dataset measure, computational assets, optimization issue characteristics, and wanted merging speed. Understanding their contrasts and tradeoffs engages professionals to choose the foremost fitting calculation for their machine learning assignments.

Updated on: 26-Jul-2023


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